Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 34, issue 6
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Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: There are many reasons that could lead to finger joint arthroplasty, and the most familiar reason is osteoarthritis. Silicone finger joint are the most commonly used implants. However, these implants might fracture with time and cause wear which will lead to chronic inflammation and synovitis for the patient and then implant failure. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to improve the design of the silicone finger joint and simulate the different designs using finite element analysis (FEA) simulation. METHOD: Three different designs were drawn and FEA has been used in this study using Solidworks…software. The first design is the silicone finger joint design without any modification, the second one is modified design with added ribs to the junction of distal stem and hinge and the third design was added filler material inside the body of the artificial joint. An axial force with 625 N that was applied on the upper part of the distal stem which is nearly represents the maximum value of the grip strength for normal males. RESULTS: The results showed improvement on the design in which the concentrated stress at the junction of the distal stem and hinge of the design was distributed. In addition, the Von Mises stress was stable for the modified design with added ribs and the added filler material designs after 15°. CONCLUSION: The design modification could improve the stress distribution and stability of the artificial finger joint and increase the lifetime expectancy of these implants.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in increased psychological pressure on mental health since 2019. The resulting anxiety and stress have permeated every aspect of life during confinement. OBJECTIVE: To provide psychologists with an unbiased measure that can aid in the preliminary diagnosis of anxiety disorders and be used as an initial treatment in cognitive-behavioral therapy, this article introduces automated recognition of three levels of anxiety. METHODS: Anxiety was elicited by exposing participants to virtual environments inspired by social situations in reference to the Liebowitz social anxiety scale. Relevant parameters, such as heart rate variability and…vasoconstriction were derived from the measurement of the blood volume pulse (BVP) signal. RESULTS: A long short-term memory architecture achieved an accuracy of approximately 98% on the training and test set. CONCLUSION: The generated model allowed for careful study of the state of seven phobic participants during virtual reality exposure (VRE).
Keywords: Automatic anxiety recognition, support system, BVP signal, virtual reality, Liebowitz social anxiety scale, LSTM
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Advances in bone tissue engineering offer novel options for the regeneration of bone tissue. In the current clinical treatment, the method of accelerating bone tissue regeneration rate by promoting early angiogenesis has been widely accepted. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a long-acting slow-release system using the pro-angiogenic drug tetramethylpyrazine (TMPZ) and pro-osteogenic drug icariin (ICA), which can be administered locally to achieve the sequential release of TMPZ and ICA for better clinically efficiency in the treatment of bone defects. METHODS: This study aimed to prepare microspheres with a core-shell structure using two polymers, poly…lactic-co-glycolic acid and silk fibroin, by coaxial electrostatic spraying. Based on the therapeutic model for bone defects, the pro-angiogenic drug TMPZ and pro-osteogenic drug ICA were encapsulated in the shell and core layers of the microspheres, respectively. Subsequently, TMPZ and ICA were released sequentially to promote early angiogenesis and late osteogenesis, respectively, at the site of the bone defect. The optimal preparation parameters for preparing the drug-loaded microspheres were identified using the univariate controlled variable method. Additionally, microsphere morphology and core-shell structure, such as physical properties, drug-loading properties, in vitro degradation and drug release patterns, were characterised using scanning electron microscope and laser scanning confocal microscopy. RESULTS: The microspheres prepared in this study were well-defined and had a core-shell structure. The hydrophilicity of the drug-loaded microspheres changed compared to the no-load microspheres. Furthermore, in vitro results indicated that the drug-loaded microspheres with high encapsulation and loading efficiencies exhibited good biodegradability and cytocompatibility, slowly releasing the drug for up to three months. CONCLUSION: The development of the drug delivery system with a dual-step release mechanism has potential clinical applications and implications in the treatment of bone defects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Currently, quadrilateral anterior cervical plate (QACP) is a highly prevalent ACP. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to design a novel ACP using topology optimization (TOACP). METHODS: A completed model for C1–C7 cervical segments was established and validated. QACP and TOACP cage systems were implanted within two cervical vertebrae models, respectively, and peak stresses and stress distributions for screw, plate, endplate and cage displacement were investigated under differing exercise modes. RESULTS: Stress levels upon QACP screw were maximized for over-extension exercise (243.3 MPa, 3.35% > TOACP screw). Stress level upon TOACP plate was maximized…for over-extension exercise (118.2 MPa, 7.26% > QACP screw). Following QACP cage system implantation, stress on endplate and cage displacement were maximized for extension exercise, which were 27.1%, and 6.3% > TOACP cage system, respectively. Finite element analysis results revealed that topological optimization of the plate can effectively reduce screw stress, thereby enhancing cervical segments’ stability during surgery. Furthermore, stress on endplate and cage displacement decreased, indicating great potential in cage sinking and fusion enhancement. CONCLUSIONS: Topological optimization of the plate equips the cage system with advantages in clinical applications and biomechanical performance, providing alternative solutions and a theoretical basis for ACP design.
Keywords: Biomechanics, finite element analysis, anterior cervical plate (ACP), topological optimization, cage system
Abstract: BACKGROUND: A combination of synthetic porous materials and BMP-2 has been used to promote fracture healing. For bone healing to be successful, it is important to use growth factor delivery systems that enable continuous release of BMP-2 at the fracture site. We previously reported that in situ-formed gels (IFGs) consisting of hyaluronan (HyA)-tyramine (TA), horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide enhance the bone formation ability of hydroxyapatite (Hap)/BMP-2 composites in a posterior lumbar fusion model. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effectiveness of IFGs-HyA/Hap/BMP-2 composites for facilitating osteogenesis in refractory fracture model mice. METHODS: After establishing the refractory fracture…model, animals were either treated at the site of fracture with Hap harboring BMP-2 (Hap/BMP-2) or IFGs-HyA with Hap harboring BMP-2 (IFGs-HyA/Hap/BMP-2) (n = 10 each). Animals that underwent the fracture surgery but did not receive any treatment were considered the control group (n = 10). We determined the extent of bone formation at the fracture site according to findings on micro-computed tomography and histological studies four weeks following treatment. RESULTS: Animals treated with IFGs-HyA/Hap/BMP-2 demonstrated significantly greater bone volume, bone mineral content and bone union than those treated with vehicle or IFG-HyA/Hap alone. CONCLUSIONS: IFGs-HyA/Hap/BMP-2 could be an effective treatment option for refractory fractures.
Keywords: In situ-formed gels, hydroxyapatites, hyaluronic acid, bone morphogenetic protein, refractory fracture
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Biomaterials must allow revascularization for a successful tissue regeneration process. Biomaterials formulated from the extracellular matrix (ECM) have gained popularity in tissue engineering because of their superior biocompatibility, and due to their rheological properties, ECM-hydrogels can be easily applied in damaged areas, allowing cell colonization and integration into the host tissue. Porcine urinary bladder ECM (pUBM) retains functional signaling and structural proteins, being an excellent option in regenerative medicine. Even some small molecules, such as the antimicrobial cathelicidin-derived LL-37 peptide have proven angiogenic properties. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility and angiogenic…potential of an ECM-hydrogel derived from the porcine urinary bladder (pUBMh) biofunctionalized with the LL-37 peptide (pUBMh/LL37). METHODS: Macrophages, fibroblasts, and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSC) were exposed pUBMh/LL37, and the effect on cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay, cytotoxicity by quantification of lactate dehydrogenase release and the Live/Dead Cell Imaging assays. Moreover, macrophage production of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, MCP-1, INF-γ, and TNF-α cytokines was quantified using a bead-based cytometric array. pUBMh/LL37 was implanted directly by dorsal subcutaneous injection in Wistar rats for 24 h to evaluate biocompatibility, and pUBMh/LL37-loaded angioreactors were implanted for 21 days for evaluation of angiogenesis. RESULTS: We found that pUBMh/LL37 did not affect cell proliferation and is cytocompatible to all tested cell lines but induces the production of TNF-α and MCP-1 in macrophages. In vivo , this ECM-hydrogel induces fibroblast-like cell recruitment within the material, without tissue damage or inflammation at 48 h. Interestingly, tissue remodeling with vasculature inside angioreactors was seen at 21 days. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that pUBMh/LL37 is cytologically compatible, and induces angiogenesis in vivo , showing potential for tissue regeneration therapies.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Bovine pericardium (BP) is a scaffold widely used in soft tissues regeneration; however, its calcification in contact with glutaraldehyde, represent an opportunity for its application in hard tissues, such as bone in the oral cavity. OBJECTIVE: To develop and to characterize decellularized and glutaraldehyde-crosslinked bovine pericardium (GC-BP) as a potential scaffold for guided bone regeneration GBR. METHODS: BP samples from healthy animals of the bovine zebu breed were decellularized and crosslinked by digestion with detergents and glutaraldehyde respectively. The resulting cell-free scaffold was physical, chemical, mechanical, and biologically characterized thought hematoxylin and eosin staining, DNA…quantification, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), uniaxial tensile test, cell viability and live and dead assay in cultures of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). RESULTS: The decellularization and crosslinking of BP appeared to induce conformational changes of the CLG molecules, which led to lower mechanical properties at the GC-BP scaffold, at the same time that promoted cell adhesion and viability of DPSCs. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the decellularized and GC-BP is a scaffold with the potential to be used promoting DPSCs recruitment, which has a great impact on the dental area.