Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 34, issue 3
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Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Biological hydroxyapatite (BHA)-based bone grafting materials have been widely used for bone regeneration in implant surgery. Much effort has been made in the improvement of their osteogenic property as it remains unsatisfactory for clinical use. Osteoimmunomodulation plays a significant role in bone regeneration, which is highly related to active inorganic ions. Therefore, attempts have been made to obtain osteoimmunomodulatory BHA-based bone grafting materials with optimized osteogenic property by ion doping. OBJECTIVE: To summarize and discuss the active inorganic ions doped into BHA and their effects on BHA-based bone grafting materials. METHOD: A literature search was…performed in databases including Google Scholar, Web of Science and PubMed, with the elementary keywords of “ion doped” and “biological hydroxyapatite”, as well as several supplementary keywords. All document types were included in this search. The searching period and language were not limited and kept updated to 2022. RESULTS: A total of 32 articles were finally included, of which 32 discussed the physiochemical properties of BHA-based biomaterials, while 12 investigated their biological features in vitro , and only three examined their biological performance in vivo . Various ions were doped into BHA, including fluoride, zinc, magnesium and lithium. Such ions improved the biological performance of BHA-based biomaterials, which was attributed to their osteoimmunomodulatory effect. CONCLUSION: The doping of active inorganic ions is a reliable strategy to endow BHA-based biomaterials with osteoimmunomodulatory property and promote bone regeneration. Further studies are still in need to explore more ions and their effects in the crosstalk between the skeletal and immune systems.
Keywords: Ion doping, bone regeneration, osteoimmunomodulation, biological hydroxyapatite, bone grafting materials
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The bulk metallic glass (BMG), Pd79 Ag3.5 P6 Si9.5 Ge2 , has a high fracture toughness and has been found to accommodate post-yield stress, unlike most other BMG. Moreover, due to its greater noble gas composition it has a intrinsic corrosion resistance, ideal for dental and orthopedic implants. OBJECTIVE: This present study aimed to evaluate the in vivo application of Pd79 Ag3.5 P6 Si9.5 Ge2 in a large translational sheep model to assess its efficacy to be utilized as an endosteal device. METHODS: Twelve implants in the form of cylindrical rods (3 mm in…diameter) were produced through rapid quenching. Each sheep (n = 12) received one osteotomy in the mandibular region using rotary instrumentation, which was filled with Pd79 Ag3.5 P6 Si9.5 Ge2 . After 6- and 24-weeks the animals were euthanized, and samples collected en bloc to conduct histomorphometric analysis. The degree of osseointegration were assessed through bone-to-implant contact (BIC). RESULTS: All samples revealed favorable BIC along with with fibrous connective tissue layers at both 6- and 24-weeks. Bone along with interfacial remodeling was observed in proximity with the metallic glass surface at 6 weeks with higher degrees of bone organization being observed at the later healing time, 24 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The synthesized BMG, given its unique combination of toughness and strength, revealed potential to serve as an alternative to commonly used Ti alloys.
Keywords: Bulk metallic glass, medical implants,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Although the internal fixation technique for scoliosis is effective, there is a great risk of nail placement in actual operation. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of three different nail placement strategies on LenkeC patients with scoliosis under cyclic loading. METHODS: Firstly, the finite element model was established by using CT scanning images and X-ray images of patients with LenkeC scoliosis. Secondly, the validity of the model was verified. Finally, the harmonic response analysis and transient dynamic analysis were carried out. Results: The results showed that the maximum amplitude of each vertebral body appeared…in the Z direction at the third natural frequency and the amplitudes of each corresponding vertebral body were very close under three kinds of nail placement. Under different nail placement methods, the uneven distribution of nails would make the model produce obvious stress concentration, but the principal stress of vertebral body and nail rod was far lower than its own yield strength. This showed that under the axial cyclic load, the vertebral bodies of scoliosis tended to have larger impact in Z direction. From the point of view of dynamics, it was feasible to reduce a certain number of nails in operation. CONCLUSION: This paper revealed that it was feasible to reduce a certain number of nails during surgery.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Pulmonary artery stenosis is a serious threat to people’s life and health. OBJECTIVE: The hydrodynamic mechanism of pulmonary artery stenosis is investigated. METHODS: Numerical analysis of hemodynamics in pulmonary artery stenosis using computational fluid dynamics techniques is performed. An idealized model of pulmonary artery stenosis is established, and the model is divided into main pulmonary artery, right and left pulmonary arteries, and their branches. The sections at different positions are intercepted to study the distribution trend of maximum velocity, pressure and wall shear stress. RESULTS: The numerical simulation results show that the pressure…drop at both ends of the narrow area is large. High velocity and wall shear stress exist in the center of stenosis, and the wall shear stress at the distal end of stenosis gradually decreases, resulting in endothelial dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: To some extent, this study helps clinicians make diagnosis and treatment plans in advance and improve prognosis. This method could be used in the numerical simulation of practical models.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is one of the main causes of vertebral artery stenosis, which reduces blood supply to the posterior circulation, resulting in cerebral infarction or death. OBJECTIVE: To investigate stenosis rates and locations on the development of vertebral artery plaques. METHODS: Stenosis models with varying degrees and positions of stenosis were established. The stenosis area was comprehensively analyzed using multiphase flow numerical simulation. Wall shear stress (WSS), blood flow velocity, and red blood cell (RBC) volume fraction were calculated. RESULTS: Blood flow velocity in 30–70% stenosis of each segment tended to increase significantly higher…than normal. Downstream of 50% stenosis exhibited turbulent flow; downstream of 70% displayed reflux. Severe stenosis increases the WSS and distribution area. The mixed area of high and low WSS appeared downstream of the stenosis. The RBC volume fraction at the stenosis increased (maximum value: 0.487 at 70% stenosis in the V4), which was 1.08 times the normal volume fraction. Turbulent and backflow regions exhibited complex RBC volume fraction distributions. CONCLUSION: Flow velocity, WSS, and RBC volume fraction at the stenosis increase with stenosis severity, increasing plaque shedding. Narrow downstream spoiler and reflux areas possess low WSS and high erythrocyte volume fractions, accelerating plaque growth.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) or percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) are commonly employed for Kummell’s disease in stages II–III; however, these techniques produce some complications. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical efficacy and imaging results of percutaneous vertebroplasty + bone cement-augmented short-segment pedicle screw fixation (PSPVP) versus transpedicular intracorporeal bone grafting + pedicle screw fixation (PSIBG) in the treatment of stage II–III Kummell’s disease. METHODS: A total of 69 patients admitted between November 2017 and March 2021 were included in this study; 36 of these were treated with PSPVP, and 33 were treated with PSIBG. Patients in the two groups were…compared in terms of perioperative, follow-up, and imaging data. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of operation duration (P > 0.05). However, the PSPVP group was superior to the PSIBG group in terms of incision length, intraoperative blood loss, and length of stay (P < 0.05). All patients were followed up for more than 12 months. The VAS score, height of anterior vertebral margin, kyphosis Cobb angle, wedge angle of the affected vertebra at seven days after surgery and last follow-up, and the ODI index at the last follow-up of the two groups were significantly improved compared with figures before surgery (P < 0.05). Compared with values before surgery, no statistically significant differences were found in the height of the posterior vertebral margin in the PSPVP group at seven days after surgery and at the last follow-up (P > 0.05). There were also no statistically significant differences in the VAS score, ODI index, kyphosis Cobb angle, and wedge angle of the affected vertebra between the two groups at corresponding time points (P > 0.05). The heights of the anterior and posterior vertebral margins in the PSIBG group were better than those in the PSPVP group after surgery and at the last follow-up (P < 0.05). In the PSPVP group, a pedicle screw fracture occurred in one patient two months after surgery, while an upper adjacent vertebral fracture occurred in one patient eight months after surgery. CONCLUSION: Both PSPVP and PSIBG can achieve good early clinical efficacy in the treatment of stage II–III Kummell’s disease, with PSPVP being relatively less invasive while producing a poorer orthopedic effect and more complications than PSIBG.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The marginal adaptation of root-end filling materials and the effective antibacterial control in a surgical site are crucial for the successful outcome of endodontic surgery. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of retrograde application of photodynamic therapy on the marginal adaptation of Biodentine used as a root-end filling material. METHODS: Twenty single-rooted anterior teeth were selected, instrumented and obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus. The apical 3 mm of the roots were resected and root-end cavities were prepared with an ultrasonic retro-tip. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10). In…the first group, photodynamic therapy (PDT) was applied in the retrograde cavity prior to the root-end filling. In the second group retro cavity was filled without PDT. All specimens were obturated with Biodentine and afterwards sectioned longitudinally. The gap width at the material-dentin interface was measured using a scanning electron microscope. The results were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The produced gap width by Biodentine/PDT was 3.85 μm versus 2.68 μm in the Biodentine control group with significant differences in-between. CONCLUSION: Under the conditions of this study, PDT has a negative effect on the marginal adaptation of Biodentine used as root-end filling material.