Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 32, issue 4
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The aim of
Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Collagen receptors are characterized by binding to and being activated by collagens. We know little about the molecular mechanism by which the integrins and discoidin domains (DDRs) recognize collagen. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of two main collagen receptor subfamilies, integrins and DDRs, during osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenehymal stem cells (hMSCs). METHODS: Using qRT-PCR, Western blots and FACS, the levels of DDR1, DDR2, integrin subunits β1, α1, α2, α10 and α11 receptors on hMSCs, were assessed upon activation by collagen type I, as well as during osteogenic and chondrogenic…differentiation. RESULTS: The expression of DDR2 and integrin α11β1 was altered compared with other receptors when the cells were cultured under undifferentiated conditions. During osteogenic and chondrogenetic differentiation, DDR2 and α11 were up-regulated during early stages (6 day) of osteogenesis and chondrogenesis, respectively. The expression and activation of DDR2 was concomitant with another receptor integrin subunit β1 during osteogenetic differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that DDR2 was more specific for osteogenesis than chondrogenesis, while integrin α11β1 was more specific in chondrogenesis. DDR2 and α11 may play a role in the regulation of osteogenesis and chondrogenesis based on the differential expression of these receptors during lineage-dependent changes.
Keywords: Collagen receptors, human mesenehymal stem cell, osteogenesis, chondrogenesis
Abstract: BACKGROUND: An enzymatic crosslinking strategy using hydrogen peroxide and horseradish peroxidase is receiving increasing attention for application with in situ-formed hydrogels (IFHGs). IFHGs may also be ideal carrier materials for bone repair, although their ability to carry bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) has yet to be examined. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effectiveness of an IFHG made of hyaluronan (IFHG-HA) containing BMP2 for promoting bone formation in a mouse critical size bone defect model. METHODS: C57/BL6J mice received a 2-mm femoral critical-sized bone defect before being randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups (n = 6):…control (no treatment), IFHG-HA only, PBS with BMP2, and IFHG-HA with BMP2. X-ray radiographs were utilized to track new bone formation, and micro-computed tomography and histological examination were performed on new bone formed at the bone defect site two weeks after surgery. RESULTS: Mice treated with PBS with BMP2 and IFHG-HA with BMP2 had greater bone volume (BV) and bone mineral content (BMC) than those receiving control, and successfully achieved consolidation. Mice treated with IFHG-HA with BMP2 had significantly higher BV and BMC than those treated with PBS with BMP2. CONCLUSIONS: IFHG-HA may be an effective carrier for BMP2 to enable delivery for bone defect repair.
Keywords: In situ-formed hydrogels, bone defect, carrier, bone morphogenetic protein-2
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Bovine bone matrix is a natural material that has been used in the treatment of bone lesions. In this study, bovine bone matrix Nukbone® (NKB) was investigated due its osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties. This biomaterial induces CBFA-1 activation and osteogenic differentiation, although the cytokines involved in these processes is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to determine the influence of NKB on the pro-osteoblastic and anti-osteoblastic cytokines secretion from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). METHODS: The hMSCs were cultured onto NKB and cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α…were analized at 0-14 days by immunoassay. In addition, hemocompatibility of NKB and characterization of hMSCs were evaluated. RESULTS: NKB induces an increase on pro-osteoblastic cytokine secretion IL-4 and a decrease on anti-osteoblastic cytokine IL-6 secretion, at days 7 and 14 of cell culture. Interestingly, there was no statistical difference between secretion profiles of others cytokines analized. CONCLUSIONS: The up-regulation of IL-4 and down-regulation of IL-6, and the secretion profiles of other cytokines examined in this work, are findings that will contribute to the understanding of the role of NKB, and similar biomaterials, in bone homeostasis and in the osteoblastic differentiation of hMSCs.
Keywords: Bovine bone matrix, mesenchymal stem cell, bone regeneration, cytokine, nukbone
Abstract: BACKGROUND: With inherent flexibility, high electroconductivity, excellent thermal conductivity, easy printability and biosafety, Ga-based functional liquid metals (LMs) have been extensively evaluated for biomedical applications. When implanted in the biological environment, the safety of the LMs is a major concern for future application. METHODS: In this study, we conducted several biocompatibility assessments through immersion experiments, in vitro cytotoxicity experiments and in vivo embedding experiments. RESULTS: The results showed that both the Al-assisted self-driven LM and the LM per se own good biocompatibility and retrievable properties when contacted with living organisms for a relatively long period of time.…CONCLUSION: This study provides preliminary evidence about the biocompatibility of the functional LM materials, such as LM-based soft machine, which would promote and inspire other research to address other tough biomedical issues.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The intricate structure of natural materials is in correspondence with its highly complex functional behaviour. The health of teeth depends, in a complex way, on a heterogeneous arrangement of soft and hard porous tissues that allow for an adequate flow of minerals and oxygen to provide continuous restoration. Although restorative materials, used in clinics, have been evolving from the silver amalgams to actual inorganic fillers, their structural and textural properties are scarcely biomimetic, hindering the functional recovery of the tissue. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work is to compare and test the hybrid mesoporous silica-based scaffolds as…candidates for dentine restoration applications. METHODS: In this work, we present the development and the physical properties study of biocompatible hybrid mesoporous nanostructured scaffolds with a chemically versatile surface and biosimilar architecture. We test their textural (BET) and dielectric permittivity (ac impedance) properties. RESULTS: These materials, with textural and dielectric properties similar to dentine and large availability for the payload of therapeutic agents, are promising candidates as functional restorative materials, suitable for impedance characterization techniques in dental studies. CONCLUSIONS: Structural, textural, morphological characterization and electrical properties of hybrid mesoporous show a large degree of similarity to natural dentin samples.