Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 32, issue 1
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Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The use of helmets was considered to be one of the important prevention strategies employed on construction sites. The shock absorption performance of a construction (or industrial) helmet is its most important performance parameter. Industrial helmets will experience cumulative structural damage when being impacted repeatedly with impact magnitudes greater than its endurance limit. OBJECTIVE: The current study is to test if the shock absorption performance of Type I construction helmets subjected to repeated impacts can be improved by applying polyethylene air-bubble cushions to the helmet suspension system. METHODS: Drop impact tests were performed using a…commercial drop tower test machine following the ANSI Z89.1 Type I drop impact protocol. Typical off-the-shelf Type I construction helmets were evaluated in the study. A 5 mm thick air-bubble cushioning liner was placed between the headform and the helmet to be tested. Helmets were impacted ten times at different drop heights from 0.61 to 1.73 m. The effects of the air-bubble cushioning liner on the helmets’ shock absorption performance were evaluated by comparing the peak transmitted forces collected from the original off-the-shelf helmet samples to the helmets equipped with air-bubble cushioning liners. RESULTS: Our results showed that a typical Type I construction helmet can be subjected to repeated impacts with a magnitude less than 22 J (corresponding to a drop height 0.61 m) without compromising its shock absorption performance. In comparison, the same construction helmet, when equipped with an air-bubble cushioning liner, can be subjected to repeated impacts of a magnitude of 54 J (corresponding to a drop height 1.52 m) without compromising its shock absorption performance. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the helmet’s shock absorbing endurance limit has been increased by 145% with addition of an air-bubble cushioning liner.
Keywords: Construction helmet, repeated impacts, shock absorption, air-bubble cushioning
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Microbeads for bone repair have been widely studied because they can be conveniently used in clinical applications. OBJECTIVE: This study concerns the preparation, physical properties and in vitro characterisation of different types of alginate/calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramic microbeads, which were designed for use as drug delivery systems and bone-regeneration matrices. METHODS: Hybrid microbeads were successfully prepared from sodium alginate and various CaP, namely 𝛼-tricalcium phosphate, 𝛽-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite using the liquid droplet method. RESULTS: Porosity, swelling properties and in vitro degradation of the microbeads in the aqueous environment were significantly changed by…the added CaP. The compressive strength of the blocks fabricated from the beads was around 120 MPa irrespective of the type of CaP. The initial release rate of the model drug methylene blue was suppressed by the addition of CaP. CONCLUSION: The alginate-CaP composite beads hold promising potential as an encapsulation carrier of drugs and component of bone substitutes.
Keywords: Alginate, calcium phosphate, microbeads, in vitro drug release, in vitro degradation
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Increasing reports on new cement formulations that address the shortcomings of PMMA bone cements and various active components have been introduced to improve the biological activity of PMMA cement. OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the biological properties of PMMA cements reinforced with Bio-Gene allogeneic bone. METHODS: The MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast-like cells were utilized to determine the effects of Bio-Gene + PMMA on osteoblast viability, adhesion and differentiation. RESULTS: The combination of allogeneic bone and PMMA increased the number of adherent live cells compared to both control group and PMMA or Bio-Gene group. Scanning electron microscopy…observed that the number of cells adhered to Bio-Gene + PMMA was larger than Bio-Gene and PMMA group. Compared with the control and PMMA or Bio-Gene group, the level of ALP and the number of calcium nodules after osteoinduction was remarkably enhanced in Bio-Gene + PMMA group. Additionally, the combination of Bio-Gene and PMMA induced the protein expression of osteocalcin, osterix and collagen I. CONCLUSION: The composition of PMMA and allogeneic bone could provide a more beneficial microenvironment for osteoblast proliferation, adhesion and differentiation. PMMA bone cement reinforced with Bio-Gene allogeneic bone may act as a novel bone substitute to improve the biological activity of PMMA cement.
Keywords: Allogeneic bone, bone substitute, osteoblast, polymethyl-methacrylate bone cement
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Merging stem cells with biomimetic materials represent an attractive approach to tissue engineering. The development of an alternative scaffold with the ability to mimic the extracellular matrix, and the 3D gradient preventing any alteration in cell metabolism or in their gene expression patterns, would have many medical applications. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we introduced the use of RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) bio-conjugated cotton to promote the growth and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). METHODS: We measured the expression of stem cell markers and adhesion markers with Q-PCR and analyzed the transcriptomic. The results obtained showed that…the MSCs, when cultured with bio-conjugated cotton fibers, form aggregates around the fibers while proliferating. The seeded MSCs with cotton fibers proliferated in a similar fashion to the cells seeded on the monolayer (population doubling level 1.88 and 2.19 respectively). RESULTS: The whole genome sequencing of cells adhering to these cotton fibers and cells adhering to the cell culture dish showed differently expressed genes and pathways in both populations. However, the expression of the stem cell markers (Oct4, cKit, CD105) and cell adhesion markers (CD29, HSPG2 and CD138), when examined with quantitative RT-PCR, was maintained in both cell populations. CONCLUSION: These results clearly show the ability of the cotton fibers to promote MSCs growth and proliferation in a 3D structure mimicking the in vivo environment without losing their stem cell phenotype.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of bone repair is determined by the balance of proliferative and destructive factors in the fracture union site. It can be enhanced by using various nanostructured materials possessing osteoinductive properties, in particular titanium implants with biodegradable calcium phosphate coatings. The effects of these coatings on the state of stem cells, their differentiation and distribution in the repair zone is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To study the dynamics of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of stem cells after experimental fracture followed by implantation of titanium implants with calcium phosphate coatings. METHODS: The localization of proliferation (PCNA) and…differentiation (CD44 and osteocalcin) factors and apoptotic molecules (MDM2, p53, caspase-3) was studied in a rat femoral fracture model with implant placement. Titanium implant screws with bioactive calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite coatings formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation were used in the study. Experimental rats were arranged into three groups (15 animals per group): control group; rats implanted with uncoated implants; and rats implanted with coated implants. Control rats were subject to a similar fracture as experimental ones and were allowed to heal conservatively. Rats from all groups were sampled on days 7, 14, and 30 after injury. RESULTS: Low-differentiated PCNA-, osteocalcin-, and CD44-immunopositive cells were localized around the implant in the inner layer of the periosteum, layer of outer circumferential lamellae, and connective tissue lining of haversian canals. The spatial density of cells expressing the above proliferation and differentiation factors, as well as that of MDM2-immunoreactive cells, increased on day 7 and decreased by day 30 after injury. The spatial density of apoptotic cells reached the maximum on day 14 after injury. They were mainly found in the inner layer of the periosteum and outer circumferential lamellae. p53- and caspase-3-positive cells occurred on the surface of the concentric lamellae surrounding haversian canals and under the periosteum. Their spatial density decreased by day 30 after injury. CONCLUSIONS: Calcium phosphate coatings stimulate cell proliferation at early stages of fracture restoration and apoptotic cell death at later stages. Coating components may provide positional information guiding the differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells. A change in the activity of apoptotic factors, osteocalcin, and CD44 is caused by gene induction in response to the diffusion of calcium phosphate compounds from coating to surrounding tissue.