Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 31, issue 6
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Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Gait analysis, such as portable gait rhythmogram (PGR), provides objective information that helps in the quantitative evaluation of human locomotion. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of PGR in post-stroke patients. METHODS: Two raters (A and B) examined 48 post-stroke patients. To assess intra-rater reliability, rater A tested subjects on three separate occasions (Days 1, 2, and 3). To assess inter-rater reliability, raters A and B independently tested participants on the same occasion (Day 3). RESULTS: There was no significant systematic bias between test occasions or raters. Intraclass…correlation coefficient values were 0.93–0.97 for intra-rater reliability at both the comfortable speed and maximum speed, and 0.97–0.98 (comfortable speed) and 0.97–0.99 (maximum speed) for inter-rater reliability. The standard error was 1.25–1.49 (comfortable speed) and 1.62–1.77 (maximum speed) for intra-rater investigation, and 1.04–1.32 (comfortable speed) and 0.91–1.26 (maximum speed) for inter-rater investigation. At the 90% confidence level, the minimum detectable change ranged from 2.9–4.1%, and the error of an individual’s score at a given time point ranged from ±2.1–2.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this excellent reliability of the PGR in post-stroke patients, it can be recommended as a simple test of gait analysis in this population.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The left coronary artery commonly known as LCA gets divided into two branches, such as the left circumflex (LCX) and left anterior descending (LAD) at a particular angle. This angle is varies from person to person. The present computational study contributes remarkable expertise about the influence of this angle variation on the hemodynamic parameters in the presence of 80% area stenosis at the LAD branch. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the effect of the bifurcation angle on hemodynamic parameters in the left coronary artery with 80% stenosis. METHOD: Computational models of left coronary bifurcation…angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, 120° were developed to understand the flow behavior of left coronary artery branches. The 80% area stenosis (AS) is considered at the LAD branch immediate to bifurcation. RESULTS: Measurements of pressure, velocity and wall shear stress were carried out corresponding to various bifurcation angles. It was found that the drop-in pressure increases as the angle increases from narrow to wider. A slight elevation in the velocity at the stenosis was observed. In addition, the obtained results further reveal a recirculation region immediately after the plaque, which leads to more deposition of plaque in the flow obstructed area. It is known that the shear stress at the arterial wall across the stenosis increases as the angle of bifurcation increases from narrow to wider. CONCLUSIONS: The bifurcation of the left coronary artery and size of the stenosis have a notable impact on the pressure and wall shear stress. These two factors should be given due consideration by cardiologists to assess the complexity of stenosis in the LCA branches.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: To overcome the unfavorable issues associated with conventional anti-adhesive HA/CMC film, we developed an anti-adhesive thermally cross-linked gelatin film. OBJECTIVE: We tried to clarify the re-attachability of the film and the required properties concerning the film thickness, stiffness and anti-adhesion effect. METHODS: To determine the optimal thickness, 5 kinds of the thickness of gelatin film and the conventional film were analyzed by the tensile test, shearing test, buckling test and tissue injury test. Finally, using the optimal film thickness, we tried to clarify the anti-adhesion effect of the reattached film. RESULTS: The tensile…and shearing test showed gelatin films ≥30 μm thick had greater tensile strength and a smaller number of film fractures, than the conventional film. The buckling and tissue injury test showed gelatin films ≥60 μm thick had higher buckling strength and worse injury scores than the conventional film. The anti-adhesive effect of re-attached gelatin film using optimal thickness (30–40 μm) found the anti-adhesion score was significantly better than that of the control. CONCLUSIONS: Provided it has an optimal thickness, gelatin film can be reattached with enough physical strength not to tear, safety stiffness not to induce tissue injury, and a sufficient anti-adhesion effect.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Lip closing functions have never been evaluated from the viewpoint of elastic properties. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the behavior of the lower orbicularis oris muscle during a button-pull exercise to measure lip closing force and quantitatively evaluate its elastic properties using sonographic elastography. METHODS: Appropriate compression loads for elastography were randomly measured on one of three types of acoustic couplers on three examiners. Compression tests were performed on three types of acoustic couplers within the appropriate compression load. Using the acoustic coupler with the lowest elastic modulus, the strain…ratio of the lower orbicularis oris muscle during lip closing was measured, and elastography was performed on six males under tension loads of 0–8 N. RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficient (1, 3) for the tension load of 0 N was 0.81. Elastography showed that the strain ratio values increased significantly (p < 0.05) as the tension load increased. CONCLUSIONS: Combining the data obtained from lip closing test devices and sonographic elastography enabled the muscle performance to be evaluated objectively and accurately.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The braided stent is a widely accepted endovascular treatment device consisting of woven metal wires. One of the unsolved issues for the braided stent is the stent flattening phenomena when deployed into highly curved arteries. Although a recent computational study highlighted that the mechanical state of the stent inside the catheter before the deployment plays an essential role in causing stent flattening, there is no experimental observation for the stent inside the curved catheter. OBJECTIVE: We investigated braided stent shapes in curved catheter tubes with various curvatures by micro-computed tomography (CT). METHODS: A braided stent…was deployed into catheter tubes and set in rectangular cases with constant curvature. The three-dimensional shape of the stent was imaged by micro-CT, and its cross-sectional flatness was quantitatively assessed. RESULTS: Stent flattening occurred in cases of high curvatures of the outer side of the tube curvature, and the degree of flatness increased with increasing tube curvature. This demonstrates that stent flattening can be caused inside the highly curved catheter before deployment. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary and first observational report provides new insight into the mechanism of stent flattening and emphasizes the importance of the geometrical and mechanical state of the stent inside the catheter.