Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 31, issue 1
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Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: A burn wound is one of the most frequent and devastating injuries for patients which requires extensive care. Early treatment of burn wounds improves healing significantly. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of amnion and collagen-based hydrogels on cutaneous burn wound healing in rats with covering membrane. METHODS: We prepared a novel cell free hydrogel comprising human amnion, rabbit collagen, carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt, citric acid, methyl paraben, propyl paraben, glycerin and triethanol amine. The wound covering membrane was developed from rabbit collagen and prawn shell chitosan. Beside swelling ratio, water absorption,…equilibrium water content, gel fraction and spreadability analysis, in vitro cytotoxicity and biocompatibility tests were performed for the formulated hydrogels. Following the skin irritation study, second-degree burns were created on the dorsal region of the rats and the gels were applied with/without covering membrane to study the wound contraction and re-epithelialization period. RESULTS: The formulated hydrogels were observed non-cytotoxic and compatible with human blood cells. No erythema and edema were found in skin irritation assay confirming the safety and applicability. Hydrogel consisting in a combination of amnion and collagen demonstrated significantly rapid wound healing, driven by complete re-epithelialization (16.75 ± 0.96 days) and closure by wound contraction (72 ± 3.27% , P < 0.0000009) when wound dressing membrane was used, whereas this gel alone healed about 62.5 ± 4.43% (P < 0.00001) and required 18.75 ± 0.50 days to complete re-epithelialization. Additionally, the gel with covering membrane treated group had maximum average body weight, food and water intake. CONCLUSION: The amnion and collagen-based blended gel offers alternative possibilities to treat skin wounds when covered with film, which could overcome the limitations associated with modern therapeutic products such as high costs, long manufacturing times, complexities, storing, and presence of living biomaterials.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In some treatments using multiple dental implants, the implants are inserted in the bone with splinted or non-splinted implant prostheses. There are some reports about the influence of the splinted and non-splinted implants on stress distribution in the bone using the finite element method (FEM), and there is a controversy in the literature regarding whether the splinted or non-splinted implants prostheses reduce the stress generated on the implant-surrounding bone more efficiently. Additionally, the simple shape of the jaw bones with limited bone area was used for FEM analysis in many studies at the expense of accurate analysis.…OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in stress distribution in the bone between the splinted and non-splinted implants, and between completely and partially edentulous mandibles. METHODS: The implants were inserted in the first premolar, second premolar, and first molar regions of the partial and complete mandibles, and the splinted and non-splinted crowns were attached to the implants. Vertical load (100 N) or oblique load (70 N, 30° from its long axis towards the lingual) was applied on the first premolar. RESULTS: When vertical load was applied to the partially edentulous mandible model, the stress was concentrated intensively on the cortical bone around the first premolar regardless of whether splinted or non-splinted implants were used. On the other hand, the vertical load applied to the completely edentulous mandible model caused the stress to be concentrated intensively on the cortical bone around the first premolar with non-splinted implants. With respect to the oblique load, the stress was concentrated intensively on the cortical bone around the first premolar only with the non-splinted implants, in both the partial and complete mandibles. CONCLUSION: This study shows the different stress distributions of the cortical bone around the implants between the partial and complete mandible. This indicates that the complete mandible should be used for the analysis of bone stress distribution around the implants using FEM.
Keywords: Finite element method, splinted, non-splinted, dental implant
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived hepatocytes are an attractive alternative cell source to primary human hepatocytes for tissue regeneration. OBJECTIVES: This study presents an application of lactose-silk fibroin conjugates (Lac-CY-SF) bearing 𝛽-galactose residues as a substrate for culture of hiPSC-derived hepatocytes. A comparison of hiPSC-derived hepatocytes cultured on three different substrates; Lac-CY-SF conjugates, Matrigel and type I collagen was performed. METHODS: Cell morphology, viability, maturation and albumin secretory function were assessed by phase-contrast microscopy, tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay, immunofluorescence staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Morphological characteristics of the cells cultured on the…conjugates resembled those on Matrigel throughout the 6-day culture period. The number of viable cells cultured on the conjugates was comparable to that on Matrigel at day 2 and 6. The protein expression of mature hepatocyte markers, asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 and albumin, by the cells cultured on the conjugates resembled that by the cells cultured on collagen at day 2 and 6. Albumin secretory function per cell cultured on the conjugates was higher than that on collagen and comparable to that on Matrigel. CONCLUSIONS: These limited results suggest that Lac-CY-SF conjugates may be as useful as Matrigel and collagen for cultivation of hiPSC-derived hepatocytes.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Previously we found that a group of phosphorylated proteins (SIBLINGs) in bone binds with the Ti-device, and increases the early bone formation around the Ti–implants remarkably. From these results, we explained the biochemical mechanism of a strong bond between living bone and Ti, which was discovered by Brånemark and colleagues. For the clinical application of our findings, we need a large amount of these proteins or their substitutes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to create a new molecule that equips with essential functions of SIBLINGs, Ti-binding, and bone enhancement around the Ti implant. METHODS: We chemically phosphorylated…chitin and obtained a soluble form of phosphorylated chitin (P-chitin). In this solution, we immersed the Ti-devices of web-form (TW) which we previously developed and obtained the P-chitin coated TWs. Then we tested the P-chitin coated TWs for their calcification ability in vitro , and bone enhancing ability in vivo , by implanting them into rat calvaria. We compared the P-chitin coated TW and the non-coated TW in regard to their calcification and bone enhancing abilities. RESULTS: Ti-devices coated with phosphorylated-chitin induced a ten times higher calcification in vitro at 20 days, and four times more elevated amount of bone formation in vivo at two weeks than the uncoated Ti-device. CONCLUSIONS: Phosphorylated chitin could be a partial substitute of bone SIBLING proteins and are clinically applicable to accelerate bone formation around the Ti implants, thereby achieving the strong bond between living bone and Ti.
Keywords: Chitin, phosphorylation, enhanced bone formation, Ti-device
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Our previous study found that spray-dried glutinous rice starch (sGRS) is larger in size, rounder in shape and better in flowability than native GRS. It has the potential to be used for direct compression hydrophilic matrix (HM) tablets. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the factors that affect the propranolol release from directly compressed sGRS HM tablets. METHODS: The effects of the amount of sGRS, the compaction pressure and the amount of magnesium stearate on the drug release rate from sGRS directly compressed HM were investigated. In vitro drug releases were performed. The dilution potential…of sGRS was investigated. RESULTS: The higher the sGRS content, the slower the release rate of propranolol. The compaction pressure and the amount of magnesium stearate did not significantly affect the release rate of the drug. The sGRS showed plastic deformation under compaction with a dilution potential of 46%. CONCLUSIONS: sGRS can be used as a direct compression HM. The amount of sGRS significantly affected the release rate of the drug from the matrix.