Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 3, issue 1
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The aim of
Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: Based upon previous research on the relation between hip prosthesis designs and strain distributions in a proximal femur model, a prototype of a “physiological” hip prosthesis was designed and manufactured. Strain gauge measurements on a dry femur before and after implantation of this prosthesis were made in different loading conditions simulating one-legged stance with and without torsional loading and two-legged stance. The strains in the outer cortex were within 10% of the physiological values along the whole medial side in all measurement conditions.
Keywords: biomechanics, physiological hip implant, strain gauging
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the force-deformation characteristics of football helmets subjected to compressive loading on the crown surface. Tests were conducted at quasi-static and dynamic rates of loading. Energies were computed from the force-deformation data. The padding systems represented by the helmets differed in their ability to absorb energy under varying loading rates. Helmets using pneumatic or combination pneumatic-foam padding systems were the most successful while suspension helmets were able to absorb the least amount of energy. The evaluation of energy absorption characteristics is an alternative method of describing the effectiveness of football helmets in preventing…head injury.
Keywords: football helmets, energy absorption, impact testing, compression testing, head injury
Abstract: The effect of exercise on strength and chemical composition of rat femur bone was examined. Ten 5-week-old rats were forced to exercise on a treadmill with a running speed of 20 mlmin at set time intervals for a 4-week period. Another 10 rats were kept idle as controls. After exercising, bending tests of the rat femur bones were carried out, and the content ratios of Sr to Ca, Sr/Ca, were measured by energy-dispersive fluorescent X-ray analysis and EPMA line analysis. The strength of the exercise group was greater than that of the control group. The ratio, Sr/Ca, of the exercise…group showed a tendency to increase compared to that of the control group. It is clear that the chemical composition of bone varies with the degree of exercise, and that the bone becomes strengthened at the same time.
Keywords: bone apatite, exercise, bone strength, strontium
Abstract: The aim of the present research is to analyse the mechanical behaviour of the Cotrel-Dubousset spine internal fixator using numerical and experimental techniques. Simple experimental and numerical models of a spine section (four vertebrae of the thoraco-Iumbar region) were developed in order to evaluate the response of the system, particularly the stress-strain state in the rods, by means of strain-gauge measurements. The system was subjected to combined compressive and bending static loading and the deformations of the system were measured on models simulating physiological and pathological conditions, with and without the fixator.
Abstract: Pulsed laser deposition of hydroxyapatite is applied to cover titanium medical prothesis. Laser irradiation of ceramics by power-pulsed ruby laser produces high velocity micron-size particles emission with a narrow ejection plume directed normally to the target surface. Photoemitted particles are deposited on a metal surface at 400°C to obtain a granular film, stoichiometric, polycrystalline, and very adherent to the substrate. Deposited films are highly biocompatible and may be used to induce osteointegration processes of the implanted prothesis with the bone tissues. The comparison between laser and plasma spray depositions of biocerarnics is discussed.
Keywords: hydroxyapatite, photodeposition, plasma spray, medical prothesis
Abstract: The new prosthetic heart valve that has been designed by FII Company and Pr. Baudet involves a new “composite” material: titanium alloy T16A14V coated with Diamond-like Carbon. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro hemocompatibility of this new material in terms of protein adsorption and platelet retention. The static protein adsorption test gave interesting results, particularly for the albumin assay (237%) compared to the results obtained with a silicone elastomer chosen as a reference; the fibrinogen quantity, adsorbed on the surface of the material was slightly higher than that adsorbed on the silicone surface. Platelets adhere…quite twice as much as they do on the reference surface. Such investigations showed good hemocompatibility results and should initiate further studies.