Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 27, issue 1
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The aim of
Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: Image-based finite element analysis (FEA) has been considered an effective computational tool to predict hip fracture risk. The patient specific FEA gives an insight into the inclusive effect of three-dimensional (3D) complex bone geometry, and the distribution of inhomogeneous isotropic material properties in conjunction with loading conditions. The neck region of a femur is primarily the weakest in which fracture is likely to happen, when someone falls. A sideways fall results in the development of greater tensile and compressive stresses, respectively, in the inferior and superior aspects of the femoral neck, whereas the state of stress is reversed in usual…gait or stance configuration. Herein, the variations of stresses have been investigated at the femoral neck region considering both single-stance and sideways fall. Finite element models of ten human femora have been generated using Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) scan datasets and have been simulated with an equal magnitude of load applied to the aforementioned configurations. Fracture risk indicator, defined as the ratio of the maximum compressive or tensile stress computed at the superior and inferior surfaces to the corresponding yield stress, has been used in this work to measure the variations of fracture risk between single-stance and sideways fall. The average variations of the fracture risk indicators between the fall and stance are at least 24.3% and 8% at the superior and inferior surfaces, respectively. The differences may interpret why sideways fall is more dangerous for the elderly people, causing hip fracture.
Keywords: Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT), finite element analysis (FEA), hip fracture, single-stance, sideways fall, fracture risk indicator
Abstract: In this paper, magneto-hydrodynamic blood flows through porous arteries are numerically simulated using a locally modified homogenous nanofluids model. Blood is taken into account as the third-grade non-Newtonian fluid containing nanoparticles. In the modified nanofluids model, the viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity of the solid-liquid mixture (nanofluids) which are commonly utilized as an effective value, are locally combined with the prevalent single-phase model. The modified governing equations are solved numerically using Newton’s method and a block tridiagonal matrix solver. The results are compared to the prevalent nanofluids single-phase model. In addition, the efficacies of important physical parameters such as pressure…gradient, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, magnetic-field parameter, porosity parameter, and etc. on temperature, velocity and nanoparticles concentration profiles are examined.
Abstract: Background: Worldwide, about 56% of the amputees are upper limb amputees. This research deals a method with two-channel surface electromyogram (SEMG) signal recorded from around shoulder to estimate the changes in muscle activity in non-amputee and the residual limb of trans humeral amputees with different movements of arm. Objective: Identification of different muscles activity of near shoulder amputee and non-amputee persons. Methods: SEMG signal were acquired during three distinct exercises from three-selected muscles location around shoulder. The participants were asked to move their dominant arm from an assigned position to record their muscles activity recorded with…change in position. Results: Results shows the muscles activity in scalene is more than the other muscles like pectoralis and infraspinatus with the same shoulder motion. In addition, STFT (Short-Time Fourier Transform) spectrogram with window length of 256 samples at maximum of 512 frequency bins using hamming window has used to identify the signal for the maximum muscles activity with best resolution in spectrum plot. Conclusions: The results suggest that one can use this analysis for making a suitable device for around shoulder prosthetic users based on muscles activation of amputee persons.
Keywords: Around shoulder prosthetic, STFT spectrogram, surface myoelectric signal, shoulder movement
Abstract: Background: Bone drilling is widely used in orthopaedics for fracture treatment, reconstructive surgery and bone biopsy. Heat generation in bone drilling can cause rise in bone temperature resulting in prolonged healing time or loosening of fixation. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate thermal anisotropy of bone by measuring the level of temperature in bone drilling with and without cooling conditions in two anatomical directions. Methods: Drilling tests were performed on bovine cortical bone. A total of fifteen specimens were used to obtain data for statistical analysis. Temperature near the cutting zone was measured in…two anatomical directions. i.e. along the longitudinal and circumferential direction. Temperature distribution was also found in the two prescribed directions. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to identify significant drilling parameter affecting bone temperature. Results: Drilling speed, feed rate and drill size were found influential parameters affecting bone temperature. Higher drilling speed, feed rate, and large drill size were found to cause elevated temperature in bone. Much lower temperature was measured in bone when cooling fluid was supplied to the drilling region. Experimental results revealed lower temperatures in the circumferential direction compared to the longitudinal direction. Conclusions: Thermal anisotropy for heat transport was found in the bone. This study recommends lower drilling speed and feed rate and cooling for controlling rise in bone temperature.
Keywords: Orthopaedic, bone drilling, necrosis, thermocouple, experimental analysis
Abstract: Treatment for severe scoliosis is usually attained when the scoliotic spine is deformed and fixed by implant rods. Investigation of the intraoperative changes of implant rod shape in three-dimensions is necessary to understand the biomechanics of scoliosis correction, establish consensus of the treatment, and achieve the optimal outcome. The objective of this study was to measure the intraoperative three-dimensional geometry and deformation of implant rod during scoliosis corrective surgery. A pair of images was obtained intraoperatively by the dual camera system before rotation and after rotation of rods during scoliosis surgery. The three-dimensional implant rod geometry before implantation was…measured directly by the surgeon and after surgery using a CT scanner. The images of rods were reconstructed in three-dimensions using quintic polynomial functions. The implant rod deformation was evaluated using the angle between the two three-dimensional tangent vectors measured at the ends of the implant rod. The implant rods at the concave side were significantly deformed during surgery. The highest rod deformation was found after the rotation of rods. The implant curvature regained after the surgical treatment. Careful intraoperative rod maneuver is important to achieve a safe clinical outcome because the intraoperative forces could be higher than the postoperative forces. Continuous scoliosis correction was observed as indicated by the regain of the implant rod curvature after surgery.
Keywords: Orthopaedic biomechanics, dual camera system, scoliosis, rod deformation, 3D reconstruction
Abstract: The proteins adsorption on biomaterials surface leads to changes in their structural conformation that may further influence the adhesion, migration and growth of cells. The aim of this study was to examine the attachment of collagen (calf skin type I) on bioactive glass powders and the conformational changes of the protein. Scanning electron microscopy analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements indicate that the collagen cover the glass surface in a nanometric thin layer. The infrared amide I absorption signal shows pronounced changes in the secondary structure of the adsorbed collagen.
Abstract: Background: Recently decellularized nerves with various methods are reported as highly functional nerve grafts for the treatment of nerve defects. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of decellularized allogeneic nerve, compared with oriented chitosan mesh tube, and an autologous nerve. Methods: Sciatic nerves harvested from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were decellularized in combination with Sodium dodecyl sulfate and Triton X-100. A graft into the sciatic nerve in Wistar rats was performed with the decellularized SD rat sciatic nerves or oriented chitosan nonwoven nanofiber mesh tubes (15 mm in length, N = 5 in each group). A…portion of sciatic nerve of Wistar rat was cut, reversed and re-sutured in-situ as a control. Nerve functional and histological evaluations were performed 25 weeks postoperatively. Results: It was revealed that functional, electrophysiological and histological recoveries in the decellularized nerve group match those in the autograft group. Recovery of sensory function and nerve maturation in the decellularized nerve group were superior to those in the chitosan mesh tube group. Conclusions: Nerve regeneration in the decellularized nerves could match that in the autografts and is somehow superior to artificial chitosan mesh tube. Detergents wash of SDS and Triton X-100 could obtain highly functional nerve grafts from allografts.
Abstract: Biocompatible metals have been suggested as revolutionary biomaterials for bone-grafting therapies. Although metals and their alloys are widely and successfully used in producing biomedical implants due to their good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, they have a lack in bioactivity. Therefore coating of the metal surface with calcium phosphates (CaP) is a benign way to achieve well bioactivity and get controlled corrosion properties. The biocompatibility and bioactivity calcium phosphates (CaP) in bone growth were guided them to biomedical treatment of bone defects and fractures. Many techniques have been used for fabrication of CaP coatings on metal substrates such as magnesium…and titanium. The present review will focus on the synthesis of CaP and their relative forms using different techniques especially electrochemical techniques. The latter has always been known of its unique way of optimizing the process parameters that led to a control in the structure and characteristics of the produced materials.
Abstract: Background: Drilling of bone is widely performed in orthopaedics for repair and reconstruction of bone. Current paper is focused on the efforts to minimize force generation during the drilling process. Ultrasonically Assisted Drilling (UAD) is a possible option to replace Conventional Drilling (CD) in bone surgical procedures. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate and analyze the effect of drilling parameters and ultrasonic parameters on the level of drilling thrust force in the presence of water irrigation. Methods: Drilling tests were performed on young bovine femoral bone using different parameters such as spindle speeds,…feed rates, coolant flow rates, frequency and amplitudes of vibrations. Results: The drilling force was significantly dropped with increase in drill rotation speed in both types of drilling. Increase in feed rate was more influential in raising the drilling force in CD compared to UAD. The force was significantly dropped when ultrasonic vibrations up to 10 kHz were imposed on the drill. The drill force was found to be unaffected by the range of amplitudes and the amount of water supplied to the drilling region in UAD. Conclusions: Low frequency vibrations with irrigation can be successfully used for safe and efficient drilling in bone.
Keywords: Orthopaedic, bone drilling, ultrasonic drilling, drilling force, irrigation
Abstract: The Lachman test is considered to be a reliable physical examination for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Patients with a damaged ACL demonstrate a soft endpoint feeling. However, examiners judge the soft and hard endpoints subjectively. The purpose of our study was to confirm objective performance of the Lachman test using joint auscultation. Human and porcine knee joints were examined. Knee joint sound during the Lachman test (Lachman sound) was analyzed by fast Fourier transformation. As quantitative indices of Lachman sound, the peak sound as the maximum relative amplitude (acoustic pressure) and its frequency were used. The mean Lachman peak…sound for healthy volunteer knees was 86.9 ± 12.9 Hz in frequency and −40 ± 2.5 dB in acoustic pressure. The mean Lachman peak sound for intact porcine knees was 84.1 ± 9.4 Hz and −40.5 ± 1.7 dB. Porcine knees with ACL deficiency had a soft endpoint feeling during the Lachman test. The Lachman peak sounds of porcine knees with ACL deficiency were dispersed into four distinct groups, with center frequencies of around 40, 160, 450, and 1600. The Lachman peak sound was capable of assessing soft and hard endpoints of the Lachman test objectively.