Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 25, issue s1
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Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Few studies have tried to discriminate a differential behavior between osteoarthritic (OA) osteoblasts (Obs). Based on osteocalcin level, we aimed, in the present study, to evaluate the capacity of OA Obs for producing molecules of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. METHODS: Human primary OA Obs (n=11) were exposed or not to 50 nM of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VitD3 ) for 24 h. Osteocalcin (OCN), TGF-β1, Dickkopf-related protein 2 (DKK2), R-spondin 2 (Rspo2), Wnt5b, and low density lipoprotein related-receptor 1 (LRP1) were evaluated by real time RT-PCR. RESULTS: All samples responded to VitD3 as validated by the…increase in OCN expression. However two populations of Obs were discriminated; one called “high responders” whose OCN stimulation was higher than 100 fold (mean 881 fold, p<0.01, n=5) and the second one whose stimulation was inferior to 100 fold (mean 47 fold, p<0.01, n=6), namely “low responders”. In fact, high responders have a weaker basal expression of OCN. With regards to these two cell populations and in absence of VitD3 challenge, the expression level of TGF-β1 (15 fold, p<0.001), DKK2 (2.5 fold, p<0.002) and Wnt5b (5.5 fold, p<0.003) was higher in “high responders”, meanwhile Rspo2 and LRP1 expression was unchanged. VitD3 exacerbated this pattern but corrected OCN expression and favored Wnt agonist expression. CONCLUSION: We identified 2 populations of OA Obs according to the OCN expression under the control of VitD3 . In addition under basal conditions, these 2 populations expressed differently TGF-β1, Wnt5b, DKK2, suggesting a heterogeneous differentiation and phenotype in Obs among OA patients.
Abstract: X-linked Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia (XLHED) is associated to a large spectrum of ectodermal and extra-ectodermal symptoms, especially craniofacial bone morphological, structural and metabolic anomalies. This skeletal phenotype described in affected patients and in the Ta mutant mouse model leads to craniofacial dysmorphies, endosseous implants and jaw bone grafts complications. Bone tissue bioengineering based on the use of PCL synthetic nanofibrous membrane and BMP nanoreservoirs appears as an original and promising approach to prevent such complications in the context of dysfunctional bone. Use of osteoblasts or stem cells seeded biomembranes appears as another strategy developed on the Tabby (Ta) model of…XLHED. The Ta mouse experimental model is used to study the jaw bone response during the post-operative period after bone lesion and placement of synthetic PCL membrane functionalized with nanoreservoirs embedding different BMPs dimers or seeded with living cells.
Keywords: Ectodermal dysplasia, bone regeneration, tissue engineering
Abstract: Chitosan has been used as scaffolds with various methods of fabrication including expensive commercial available ones for tissue engineering. The objective of this study is to assemble our novel method of chitosan scaffold fabrication in economical and uncomplicated way that suitable for dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) and stem cells of human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED). Chitosan scaffolds (2% and 3%) were fabricated in an uncomplicated procedure, including centrifugation and freeze-drying steps. The chitosan scaffolds were compared and the pore size, swelling and degradation were assessed. In addition, the cytocompatibility was assessed of chitosan scaffolds seeded with DPSC and SHED.…The pore size of 2% and 3% chitosan scaffolds were similar being 188.71±51.90 μm and 195.30±67.21 μm, respectively. Swelling ratios of 3% chitosan scaffolds were significantly lower than those of 2% chitosan scaffolds. Dimension of scaffolds changed in first 5 minutes. After that, those scaffolds could maintain their dimension. Chitosan scaffolds degraded as from day 7. No differences were found between 2% and 3% chitosan scaffolds. The scaffolds were shown to be non-toxic and to promote DPSCs and SHED growth. The viability of DPSCs and SHED on 2% scaffolds proved to be higher than that of the 3% scaffold group. This study suggested that chitosan scaffolds fabricated with our novel method were suitable for the growth and survival of DPSC and SHED.
Abstract: The shortage of organ resource has been limiting the application of liver transplantation. Bioartificial liver construction is increasingly focused as a replacement treatment. To product a bioartificial liver, three elements must be considered: seeding cells, scaffold and bioreactor. Recent studies have shown that several methods can successfully differentiate MSC (mesenchymal stem cells) derived from Wharton's jelly into hepatocyte, such as stimulating MSC by cytokines and growth factors, direct and indirect co-culture MSC with hepatocytes, or promote MSC differentiation by 3-dimensional matrix. In some cases, differentiation of MSC into hepatocytes can also be an alternative approach for whole organ transplantation in…treatment of acute and chronic liver diseases. In this review, the characterization of MSC from Wharton's jelly, their potential of application in liver tissue engineering on base of decellularized scaffold, their status of banking and their preclinical work performed will be discussed.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The stem cell based therapy is a potential alternative to liver transplantation. The aim of the study is to investigate the hepatocytic differentiation ability of human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUC-MSCs) in vitro. METHODS: The HUC-MSCs were isolated from Wharton's jelly of human umbilical cord. The cells were identified by assessing the stem cell markers. The HUC-MSCs were characterized by multipotency of differentiation. We modified the hepatogenic differentiation protocol and examine the function of differentiated cell by Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) uptake. The protein expressions of Total protein (TP), Albumin (ALB), Globulin…(GLB), Urea (BUN) and α-fetoprotein (AFP) were also detected. RESULTS: The cells of the hepatogenic differentiation group showed the function of hepatocyte. Protein expressions of TP, ALB, GLB BUN and AFP improve that the HUC-MSCs are able to different into the functional hepatogenic-like cell. CONCLUSION: The above founding indicated that the HUC-MSCs are able to different into the functional hepatogenic-like cell by present method.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: In present study, we plan to produce a decellularization protocol from rat liver to generate a three-dimensional whole organ scaffold. METHODS: A combination of 1% SDS and 1% tritonX-100 were used orderly to decellularize rat livers. After about 6 h of interactive antegrade/retrograde perfusion, a decellularized whole translucent liver scaffold with integrated blood vessel networks was generated. The decellularized livers are charactered by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and biochemical analysis (DNA quantification) for preservation of the three-dimension of extracellular matrix architecture. RESULTS: The decellularization protocol was verified by observation of the whole translucent liver organ with…intact vascular trees under macroscopy, in conjunction with the hematoxylin–eosin staining that showed no cells or nuclear material remained. Additionally, the Masson's stain indicted that the extracellular proteins were well kept and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a preserved decellularized matrix architecture. Compared to normal livers, DNA in the decellularized livers was quantified less than 10% at the same mass. CONCLUSIONS: The current method of decellularization protocol was feasible, simple and quick, and was verified by an absence of residual cells. The decellularized extracellular matrix had preserved integrate vascular network and a three-dimensional architecture.
Keywords: Decellularization, perfusion, whole liver organ scaffold
Abstract: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) can be mobilized from bone marrow (BM) into blood stream and home in tumor stroma, where they either help or hinder tumor growth. The issue of whether BMSCs could affect MDSCs in ascitogenous hepatoma BALB/c mice, thus influencing their functional activity, remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that after transfusion into ascitogenous hepatoma BALB/c mice, the homing fraction of BMSCs in BM was 2%–5% in 24–72 h and the percentage of Gr-1+ CD11b+ MDSCs was downregulated in peripheral blood (PB) and BM. Meanwhile, IFN-γ+ T lymphocytes…in PB increased. As a result of such immunoregulation, BMSCs treatment caused a delayed tumor growth and a prolonged survival in H22 ascitogenous hepatoma model. Because the proliferation of H22 cells was not affected by in vitro coculture with BMSCs, this observation is likely due to a systemic suppressive effect on the host MDSCs. We also demonstrated that BMSCs inhibited the induction and proliferation of MDSCs from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in an in vitro tumor conditioned medium. Thus, our findings show for the first time that BMSCs are potentially inhibitor during MDSCs induction and proliferation and that when injected intravenously into tumor bearing mice they might be effective antitumor agents suitable for cancer therapy.
Keywords: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, tumor
Abstract: The dried root of Angelica sinensis is widely used in Chinese traditional medicine for its beneficial effects against several diseases, including osteoarthritis. In order to understand the mechanism of action, two main components of the plant, the phytochemical, sodium ferulate, and a polysaccharidic fraction have been tested on osteoarthritis animal models or in human chondrocytes stimulated by the pro-inflammatory cytokine, Interleukine-1β. The results showed that sodium ferulate exhibited marked anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties by inhibiting the TNF/TNFR signal transduction pathway. On the other hand, the polysaccharidic fraction which contains a mixture of various carbohydrates was found to promote proteoglycan biosynthesis…in cartilage matrix by stimulating the activity of the UDP-glycosyltransferases that synthesize the chondroitin sulfate chains of aggrecans. It is suggested that the combined action of sodium ferulate and polysaccharidic fraction would prevent cartilage destruction in osteoarthritis and favor cartilage repair.
Keywords: Osteoarthritis, Angelina sinensis, ferulic acid, proteoglycans, inflammation, apoptosis, glycosyltransferases, Chinese herbal medicine
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Non-union of long bones is still a current problem in traumatology. Although corticocancellous bone autograft remains the usual procedure for the treatment of non-union, innovative therapies such as, percutaneous autologous concentrated bone marrow grafting (PABMG), are now appearing. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Over a period of 8 years, 45 non-union of long bones were treated by PABMG in the Department of Orthopaedic and Traumatologic Surgery (University Hospital of Nancy, France): 26 tibiae, 16 femurs, 3 humeri. Efficiency was evaluated by clinical criteria: full weight-bearing without pain, absence of motion at non-union site, and radiological criteria: healing of 3 corticales…out of 4. RESULTS: Eighteen out of 28 non-unions at the tibia were healed (69%), 10 at the femur (63%), but none was noticed at the humerus. Some pejorative prognosis factors were noted such as: tobacco, alcohol abuse, diabetes and history of infection at the fracture site. An earlier grafting improved the success rate. The number of CFU-F (Colony Forming Unit Fibroblastic) affected the healing time more than the healing rate. CONCLUSION: The procedure, even though a little invasive, enables the healing of non-union in two out of three cases with less morbidity than conventional procedures. This procedure fits perfectly into the therapeutic arsenal of non-union.
Keywords: Non-union, mesenchymal stem cells, bone marrow grafting, bone marrow, bone healing, cell therapy
Abstract: Recent advances of fundamental research on the in vitro generation of red blood cells (RBCs) from hematopoietic stem cells in the laboratory open new possibilities of the utilization of cultured RBCs in transfusion medicine. We study the economic challenge of the setup and development of the mass industrial production of RBCs in mature transfusion organizations. We argue that: (i) RBC manufacturing could be set up and developed in the short-medium run for the treatment of the small proportion of transfused patients who have a rare blood type or are alloimmunized against blood antigens; (ii) manufactured RBCs could substitute for donated…RBCs in the long run if the physical productivity of RBC engineering technology approaches that of bone marrow.
Keywords: Transfusion medicine, red blood cells, manufacture, donation