Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 2, issue 4
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Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: Flow characteristics near the end-to-end anastomosis of vascular graft were studied in model tubes by flow visualization techniques. Artery and vascular graft were modelled by an elastic tube fabricated from an elastomeric polymer and a rigid plastic tube, respectively. Anastomotic models were made by connecting these two tubes, which had compliance mismatch at their anastomoses. These model tubes were installed into a mock circulatory loop and flow was visualized using hydrogen bubbles and aluminum powder as the tracer. Flow disturbances including flow separation and eddies were observed near the modelled distal anastomosis (graft-to-artery anastomosis). Peak values of the wall shear…rate were high in the proximal anastomotic area (artery-to-graft anastomosis) and low in the distal region. These phenomena were enhanced in the models with increased compliance mismatch. The local abnormal flow observed in the anastomotic zone might cause thrombus formation and subintimal hyperplasia. To improve the patency in small-calibered arterial grafts, it is important to match their compliance to that of natural arteries.
Abstract: A potassium-doped synthetic apatite was prepared by soaking hydroxyapatite in potassium carbonate and potassium chloride solutions. The hydroxyapatite was prepared by firing slip cast ceramic bodies in vacuum at 1100°C. The conical ceramic samples and a crushed material of this were soaked in carbonate and chloride solutions for 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. Potassium, calcium, and phosphate were determined by direct current plasma emission spectroscopy. The carbonate content was determined by thermogravimetric analysis and chloride titrimetrically. After 2 weeks, one potassium ion substituted one calcium ion when soaked in a carbonate solution. When soaked in the chloride solution substitution…occurred to the same extent. At phosphate sites the substitution of phosphate for carbonate occurred at one sixth of the sites after 2 weeks. Chloride incorporated one half of the OH-sites after 2 weeks. After 4 weeks about one chloride ion was found in the apatite, and after 6 weeks one and a half of the OH-sites were occupied by chloride ions.
Abstract: Porous alumina ceramics alone and combined with rat marrow cells were implanted subcutaneously in the back of syngeneic Fischer rats. Fluorochrome-labeling was performed post operatively and the ceramics were harvested 6 and 8 weeks after implantation. Undecalcified sections of the implants were observed under fluorescence microscopy and the de novo bone-ceramic interfacial areas were analyzed by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an electron probe microanalyzer. Alumina ceramics alone did not show any bone formation, while all marrow cell loaded ceramics showed new bone formation 6 and 8 weeks after implantation. Bone formation was first observed in the center of…the pores and proceeded in a centrifugal direction, leading to contact with the ceramic. These results suggest that bone marrow cells have inherent osteogenic capacity and in the pore region of alumina ceramics progression of the osteogenesis causes the dissipation of intervening fibrous tissue between the de novo bone and alumina ceramic surface.
Keywords: alumina ceramics, bone marrow cell, osteogenesis, heterotopic bone formation, fluorochrome study
Abstract: Our study compared mechanical and biological properties of four materials classically used in surgery: polyethylene terephtalate (Mersilene®), polypropylene (Marlex®), polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon®) and expanded one (Gore-Tex®) and polyaramide (Kevlar®). No deterioration for polytetrafluoroethylene and polypropylene under irradiation was observed when materials were treated by physical means. Mechanical tests showed that all these materials could bear more than 50 N. Such a high tensile strength is never reached in visceral physiology. Results of graft elongation during tensile strength test shows two classes: a first one that includes high elongation grafts (Gore-Tex and Marlex) and a second one that includes low elongation grafts…(Mersilene and Kevlar). As these materials have many potential uses ,in surgery, we have performed cytotoxicity tests. Material extracts were obtained under standardized conditions, and we have looked at a potentially toxic effect of substances eventually leached from the materials towards cells cultured in vitro. None of the material extracts listed above were cytotoxic except for untreated Kevlar. Toxicity disappeared when Kevlar was treated with methanol. As suspected, untreated Kevlar contains toxic additives introduced during the manufacture of this textile. Thus, in spite of good mechanical properties, Kevlar should not be used in pelvic surgery on account of its lower bicompatibility. These results shows that the choice of the grafts by surgeons must be relevant in a given application.