The purpose of this study was to assess the removability and biological reactivity of an ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber cable as a new biomaterial for osteosynthesis. We used a pull-out test and an implantation test to analyze the performance of the UHMWPE fiber cable using a dog model, and compared its characteristics with those of a wire cable and a soft wire. In the pull-out test, the UHMWPE fiber cable was as easy to remove as the soft wire, and both the UHMWPE fiber cable and the soft wire were significantly easier to remove than the wire cable. The fixation capability and the biological reactivity of the UHMWPE fiber cable were examined in an osteosynthesis model of the dog greater trochanter, and were compared with those of the soft wire. The bone union rate, assessed radiographically, was very similar when using the UHMWPE fiber cable and the soft wire. However, in the soft wire group, both the surface of the greater trochanter under the fixation material and the penetration area around the fixation material showed an increased tendency toward a biological reaction, including inflammation and granulation tissue formation, as compared to the UHMWPE fiber cable group. The UHMWPE fiber cable was as easily removed from the bone tissue as the soft wire, and was easier to remove than the wire cable. Additionally, the UHMWPE fiber cable caused reduced biological reactivity with the surrounding tissue, as compared with the soft wire. In conclusion, the UHMWPE fiber cable appeared to be a suitable fixation material for osteosynthesis.