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Comparative analysis of basal physical fitness and muscle function in relation to muscle balance pattern using rowing machines


The purpose of this study was to evaluate muscle function and basal physical fitness in relation to muscle balance pattern using rowing machines. Twenty four subjects participated in this study, using three different rowing machines. Rowing exercises were performed for twenty-five times a set, four sets a day, 3 days a week, for 8 weeks. Biodex system 3(Biodex Medical Systems Co., New York, USA) was used to measure joint torques in the elbow, shoulder, lumbar and knee of subjects, for analyzing muscle function. The evaluation of basal physical fitness included body composition, muscle strength, muscle endurance, muscle reaction, agility, flexibility and explosive power. Before the experiment, significant differences of joint torques in the elbow, shoulder, lumbar and knee were present between subjects in the group. After the rowing exercise, significant improvement in every joint was witnessed. All aspects of basic fitness increased significantly, and the most improvement was observed in muscle strength from the joint torque results. As shown in the following results, every joint it was evident to have improved by more than 30% with the use of dependent load deviation type over the previously used water load method. This means that it is more effective for enhancing muscle strength and endurance to keep the muscle balance using dependent load deviation. The human body maintains motor coordination of muscle contraction during exercise. The muscle balances in the upper-lower and left-right arms could assist with effective activation of motor coordination. In this paper, an exercise method using dependent load deviation was demonstrated to be more efficient for improving muscle imbalance and strengthening muscles.