Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 11, issue 1
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Intake of sugar sweetened beverages has been consistently linked to increased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease, among other diseases. Putative underlying mechanisms include incomplete compensation for liquid calories, adverse glycemic effects, and increased hepatic metabolism of fructose leading to de novo lipogenesis, production of uric acid, and accumulation of visceral and ectopic fat. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to elucidate any existing link between energy-containing liquids, as consumed in various forms within the diet, and the effect they may have on body weight or other diseases; and whether soft drink consumption displaces water…consumption. METHODS: A self-administered online survey was conducted in 2496 participants from different countries, in six languages (Spanish, English, Chinese, French, German and Portuguese). Questions referred to their soft drink and water consumption habits, physical exercise performed, presence or absence of certain diseases and medication. RESULTS: There is statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) in BMI and consumption of cola per week: those who consumed 0–3 cans a week have a lower BMI than those who consume >7 cans of cola a week. Statistically significant difference (p = 0.02) was found when consuming soft drinks different from cola. There is greater presence of obesity (p < 0.001), gastritis (p < 0.001), constipation (p < 0.001) and mental illness (p = 0.003) among people who drink cola soft drinks. CONCLUSION: Removal of energy-containing beverages from our diet may be an appropriate public health message to support those interested in preventing weight gain as well as other diseases.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Algerian adolescents and investigate the associated cardiometabolic complications. METHODS: The study was conducted in the city of Constantine (Algeria). The population included 1100 schooled adolescent, aged 12–18 years, randomly selected. All had anthropometric measurements, and 989 had blood tests. The BMI was calculated and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined using the International Obesity Task Force reference values. RESULTS: 179 (16.3%) adolescents were overweight including 74 boys (13.8%) and 105 girls (18.6%), 51 (4.6%) adolescents were obese including 25 (4.6%) boys vs 26…(4.6%) girls (p = 0.09). Overweight and obese adolescents had higher systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.001/p < 0.0001) and abnormal blood lipid levels. Furthermore, the HOMA index was higher in overweight and obese adolescents (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: These findings show a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in a population of Algerian adolescents leading to significant cardiometabolic abnormalities.
Abstract: Coconut is an indispensable ingredient in the diet and traditional medicine of individuals belonging to the Indian subcontinent. Coconut is of high nutritional value owing to the presence of all essential dietary components, viz , saturated fatty acids, arginine rich proteins, fibre and minor components like vitamin E, phytosterols, polyphenols and flavonoids. The polyphenolic content present in coconut kernel is of particular interest due to their numerous reported beneficial effects such as reduction of oxidative stress, combating cancer and in modulating anti-inflammatory pathways. Therefore, in the present study the cytotoxic effect of the polyphenol rich fraction from coconut kernel (CK…f ) was evaluated in human prostate cancer (DU-145) cells. Individual components present in CK f was determined by LC-MS analysis. It showed that CK f contained several bioactive molecules which have potential anticancer activity viz , coumaric acid, myristin, chlorogenic acid and triterpenoid methyl esters. The cytotoxic effect of CK f at various concentrations (2.5–20 μg/ml) on DU-145 was assessed using MTT assay, AO/EB staining, mitochondrial superoxide/ROS production and changes in intracellular calcium levels, 24 hrs post treatment. Changes in the cell morphology and nucleus were observed using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Confocal microscopy. ROS and mitochondrial superoxide levels was evaluated using DCHF-DA and MitoSOX staining respectively. The impact of ROS on changes in cellular calcium levels was also studied using Fura-2-AM. LDH leakage from C K f treated and control cells were observed colorimetrically. Further, PCR analysis was done to detect changes in mitochondria associated apoptotic gene expression. It was also observed that C K f treatment increased the expression of pro-apoptotic genes - Bax, Bid, Bak and p53 in a dose-dependent manner. Based on the above results, it can be concluded that C K f may be used as a part of a dietary regime for controlling the progression of prostate cancer.
Keywords: Coconut kernel, polyphenols, ROS, apoptosis, prostate
Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIM: The hypolipidemic potential of both leaf and twig extracts of Ficus carica on experimental hyperlipidaemia induced by Triton WR-1339, in Swiss albino mice was investigated. In addition, the phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents of these extracts and their antioxidant activities were determined. These properties may have a synergistic effect on hyperlipidaemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Leaf and twig samples of F. carica were harvested and collected. The study of antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds was determined by the radical DPPH*, ABTS*+ and FRAP assays. The experimental design was carried out using acute oral toxicity…study and Triton model hyperlipidaemia on Swiss albino adult male mice. The animals were observed continuously during the 14 days of the study for any physical signs of toxicity. On the 15th day, the animals were sacrificed by decapitation under anesthesia and the organs were observed for macroscopic pathological lesions. Hyperlipidaemia was induced in the mice by a single intravenous (iv) injection of Triton WR 1339 (300 mg/kg body weight), and the antihyperlipidemic effect of each extract, studied at 150 and 300 mg, was tested by gavage. After 24 hours of administration, serum from blood samples was used to estimate the various parameters of the lipid profile namely TC, TG, LDL and HDL. RESULTS: The results of the phenolic and flavonoid compounds of Ficus carica leaves and twigs varied from 12.84 to 19.78 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) and 5.02 to 9.72 mg EQ/g dry matter, respectively. The scavenging activity (IC50 ) against the radical DPPH* and ABTS*+ varied from 346.2 to 461.38 μg/mL and 288.3 to 369.01 μg/mL for twigs and leaves respectively, and from 50.82 to 54.2 μg/mL for FRAP assay. The acute toxicity study showed no mortality and clinical signs of toxicity in the tested doses. The LD50 value of extracts of twigs and leaves of Ficus carica is greater than 5000 mg/kg. The results revealed that the administration of Ficus carica (FC) leaf and twig extracts resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) decline in levels of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-c, and VLDL-c, while the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly increased. The decrease rate of the lipid parameters differs significantly (p < 0.05) from the leaf and twig extracts and depends also on the administered dose. CONCLUSION: Ficus carica leaf and twig extracts may contain compounds able to lower plasma lipid concentrations, could contribute significantly to the total antioxidant properties and be beneficial in the treatment of hyperlipidaemia.
Abstract: BACKGROUD: Coffee is the most popular beverages consumed worldwide. It is an important source of antioxidants that can inhibit harmful effects of free radicals. OBJECTIVE: Comparative analysis of imported, roasted and consumed coffee in Algeria. METHODS: Investigation of the hydroxycinnamic acids profile of dark roasted coffee beans UHPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn analysis and in vitro evaluation of total phenolic compounds (TPC), caffeine and antioxidant activity using DPPH, ABTS, reducing power and phosphomolybdum methods in green and roasted Arabica and Robusta coffees beans and in coffee brews (Moka, Turk and Filter) prepared from a blend of Arabica and…Robusta 20:80. RESULTS: Arabica and Robusta dark roasted beans had similar chromatographic profiles, being rich in caffeoylquinic acid and feruloylquinic acid isomers. Compared to green beans, roasted coffee beans had higher amounts of TPC while caffeine drastically decreased. The antioxidant activity increased after roasting, while the reducing activity was decreased. Filter coffee showed the highest levels of TPC and caffeine (0.69±0.05 g GAE/100 g, 0.96±0.08 mg/g respectively), which exhibits the higher reducing activity for the iron (III) and molybdate with 0.45±0.01 g GAE/100 g, 134.30±2.38 mg GAE/100 g, respectively. However, the Turk coffee exhibited the highest antiradical activity with 73.34% and 83.63% towards DPPH and ABTS, respectively. Significant correlations were recorded between TPC, caffeine and reducing power (r = 0.89) and (r = 0.97) respectively. CONCLUSION Despite the high roasting degree applied to green coffee beans, the consumed coffee constitute an important source of chlorogenic acids and its derivatives with high antioxidant potential that are beneficial for human health.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Crohn’s disease (CD) is characterized by a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract causing abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss and systemic symptoms. Although the etiology of this disease is unknown, current knowledge suggests a multifactorial genesis involving genetic, environmental and immunological factors. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We focused our attention on critical analysis of the recent literature on the role of gut microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), by evaluating the differences of composition, functions and role of intestinal flora. In particular, we focused on evidences about the interaction between gut microbiota and pathogenesis of IBD. In this setting,…we conducted a PUBMED search for guidelines, systematic reviews (SR) and primary studies. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Some data suggest that, in a significant percentage of patients, the microbiota plays an important role in the genesis and maintenance of CD. Probiotic supplementation and antibiotic treatment appear to be a valid therapeutic approach, although the clinical data remain controversial. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the exciting and growing research on the role of gut microbiota in IBD, our knowledge remains fairly limited. Further studies are needed to measure the diversity, function and resistance to antibiotics of the intestinal microbiota in CD.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Few studies have shown the protective effects of Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) in psychological disorders. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the association between adherence to MDP and depression, anxiety and stress among female adolescents aged 16.20±0.97 in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: Data from 263 participants were analyzed. Adherence to MDP was determined using Mediterranean-Style Dietary Pattern Score (MSDPS). Depression, anxiety and stress scores were characterized by DASS-21 (Depression Anxiety Stress Score-21 items) questionnaire. RESULTS: Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress across quintiles of…MSDPS. After adjustment for age, the odds ratio (OR) for depression in the highest quintile of MSDPS was 0.44 (95% confidence interval [95%CI], 0.19–0.95), (P for trend = 0.009) compared to the lowest quintile. After additional adjustment for BMI, energy intake, physical activity, ethnicity, parents education level and total family income, subjects in the highest quintile had a 59% lower prevalence of depression compared to those in the lowest quintile of MSDPS (OR = 0.41;95% CI, 0.17–0.97), (P for trend = 0.010). However, the MSDPS was not significantly associated with the presence of anxiety and stress. CONCLUSION: Adherence to MDP is associated with a reduced presence of depressive symptoms in female adolescents.