Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
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The Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine (JPRM): An Interdisciplinary Approach Throughout the Lifespan is designed to parallel the multidisciplinary teams caring for children, adolescents and adults with childhood-onset physical disabilities and complex care needs worldwide. Published quarterly, topics include, and are not limited to, cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, spina bifida, limb deficiency, muscular dystrophy, stroke, cancer, developmental delays, and rare disorders. Furthermore, the journal welcomes papers dedicated to pediatric rehabilitation from a global health perspective.
The aim of JPRM is to engage a diverse group of international experts with the goal of providing readers with comprehensive information regarding children and adolescents requiring rehabilitation. JPRM brings together specialists from medicine, nursing, psychology, social work, nutrition, child life, family centered care, and occupational, physical, and speech therapy. For manuscript submissions, authorship involving at least two different specialties is encouraged, although not required, to facilitate a transdisciplinary and collaborative approach. Manuscripts are blinded and peer reviewed including biostatistical analysis. Authors are invited to submit original research, systematic and scoping reviews, guidelines, protocols, care pathways, case reports, book reviews, commentaries, editorials, and dates for future conferences.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To determine characteristics associated with self-management independence and quality of life (QOL) among adolescents and young adults with spina bifida (AYASB) engaged in a spina bifida (SB) health care transition clinic. METHODS: During SB transition visits, Eighty-eight AYASB ages 14-20 completed the Adolescent/Young Adult Self-management and Independence Scale II Self-Report/SB (AMIS II-SR/SB), scores ranging from 1–7 with 7 indicating full independence in activities, and the QUAlity of Life Assessment in Spina bifida for Teens (QUALAS-T), which has two subscales, family/independence (QFI) and bowel/bladder (QBB), with scores ranging from 0-100 with 100 indicating maximal QOL score. Demographic and…clinical variables were collected from the electronic medical record. RESULTS: The baseline AMIS II-SR/SB score was 3.3 (SD 1.0). Baseline scores for QUALAS-T QFI and QBB subscales were 73.8 (SD 19.9) and 63.8 (SD 25.8). Older age was associated with a higher baseline AMIS II-SR/SB score (p = 0.017). Over time, AMIS II-SR/SB total significantly improved (p < 0.001), but QFI and QBB did not. AYASB not on chronic intermittent catheterization (CIC) and those using urethral CIC significantly improved in AMIS II-SR/SB total scores (p = 0.001), but those using abdominal channel CIC did not. CONCLUSION: Baseline bladder management method was associated with self-management improvement for AYASB engaged in a SB-specific transition clinic.
Keywords: Spina bifida, myelomeningocele, evidence-based medicine, minority health, transition to adult care
Abstract: PURPOSE: To identify the accuracy of Body Mass Index (BMI) to categorize body weight in a sample of children with spina bifida and Down syndrome as compared to typically developing peers. METHODS: A secondary analysis of 32 children with spina bifida, Down syndrome or no chronic illness. A calculated BMI was plotted on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention age- and sex-specific BMI growth charts to determine each child’s weight status. Percentage of body fat, obtained by labeled water, was plotted on two different body fat percentile reference curves, one derived from a whole body measure (DXA)…of body fat and one by skin-fold measure. Differences in weight categories between calculated BMI and body fat percentile curves were reported. RESULTS: The calculated BMI for children with a disability had significant misclassifications as a screening tool for body fat when compared to children without a disability. Misclassifications were increased with the body fat percentile reference curve derived from skin-fold measures and for children who primarily used a wheelchair. CONCLUSION: The current recommendation to use BMI to categorize weight status is not useful for many children with disabilities. Further research to identify an alternative pragmatic strategy is necessary.
Keywords: Developmental disabilities, spina bifida, down syndrome, body mass index, obesity
Abstract: PURPOSE: Despite an increasing number of individuals with spina bifida reaching reproductive age, there has been a paucity of research into their reproductive health care needs. The objective of this study was to better understand the reproductive health experiences of self-identified women with spina bifida using qualitative methodology. METHODS: A phenomenological study design was used to address this objective. Women with spina bifida identified their interest in participating in a semi-structured interview after completing an online reproductive health survey. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Qualitative analysis followed a phenomenological approach using Dedoose software. RESULTS: Twelve…self-identified women with spina bifida participated. They described experiences in four domains: sexual education, pregnancy, labor and delivery, and postpartum. In addition, an intersecting domain of social justice and advocacy emerged. Numerous themes are described, including a lack of tailored sexual health information, impact of pregnancy on function, attitudes towards delivery method, and parenting challenges. CONCLUSION: This study explored the continuum of reproductive health experiences of women with spina bifida. They face unique reproductive health challenges that provide an opportunity for health care providers to offer more holistic care.
Keywords: Pregnancy, spina bifida, disability, myelomeningocele, women’s health
Abstract: PURPOSE: Caregivers provide unique insights into managing chronic pain in children and adolescents with dyskinetic and mixed dyskinetic/spastic cerebral palsy with communication limitations. This study explored the personal challenges caregivers face in supporting their child’s everyday pain management, including barriers and facilitators to effective chronic pain management. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with ten caregivers (all mothers) of children with either dyskinetic or mixed dyskinetic/spastic cerebral palsy. All children had chronic pain (> 3 months), were aged from 5 to 15 years, had significant functional limitations, and had either limited or no capacity to self-report their pain. Interpretative…phenomenological analysis was used to explore caregivers’ subjective experiences of managing their child’s chronic pain within family, school, and healthcare contexts. RESULTS: Five superordinate themes emerged: 1. the continual challenge of problem solving pain and dyskinesia; 2. the pursuit of a solution; 3. unfulfilled preferences within pain management; 4. all-encompassing effects on families; and 5. the ongoing impacts of pain and dyskinesia with age. CONCLUSION: There is a need for structured pain education and resources targeted towards caregivers and support workers that account for the complex overlay of dyskinesia. There is a further need to ensure caregiver preferences for nonpharmacological pain treatments are met within family-centred care models.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To assess hand dexterity in children with myelomeningocele (MMC) and to explore factors related to hand dexterity in these children. METHODS: Ninety-four children with myelomeningocele, aged 4 to 18 years, were assessed. Demographic characteristics, disease factors, visual perception (Beery test of Visual Motor Integration), cognition (WeeFunctional Independence Measure), and self-care (Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory) were assessed in relation to the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9HPT) for hand dexterity using Spearmen correlations and linear regressions. RESULTS: The children’s performance on the 9HPT in both hands was significantly slower than the norms for their age groups. Children…without a shunt showed significantly better function in both hands (p = .005) than those with a shunt. Factors most related to hand dexterity were neurological spinal level of MMC, presence of shunt, age, cognitive ability, and years of mother’s education. CONCLUSION: Children with MMC appear to have poorer hand skills than typically developed children, which was related to pathology as well as functional and environmental factors. When addressing hand dexterity in children with MMC, it is important that rehabilitation professionals continue to work with these children as they get older, and put greater emphasis on parent education using materials that are adapted to varying educational levels.
Keywords: Myelomeningocele, fine motor dexterity, hydrocephalus, cognition
Abstract: PURPOSE: The purpose of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the Adolescent/Young Adult Self-Management and Independence Scale-II (AMIS-II), an interview-based measure of self-management for youth with chronic health conditions. METHODS: A diverse sample of adolescents and young adults (AYA) with spina bifida (SB) (n = 64 AYA; mean 20.88; age range 18–25 years) completed an AMIS-II interview. Six years earlier, parents from 55 families completed questionnaires that assessed children’s responsibility for SB-related care (Sharing of Spina Bifida Management Responsibilities ) and their ability to perform skills across condition-related tasks (The Spina…Bifida Independence Survey ). Parents also reported on child’s communication skills, adaptive behaviors, and independent management of finances (Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition ; Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised ). Descriptive and correlational analyses were conducted to assess the construct validity and the internal consistency reliability of the AMIS-II. RESULTS: The AMIS-II demonstrated excellent internal consistency reliability (AMIS-II total scale α = 0.95; subscales α = 0.90 –0.91). Evidence in support of construct validity was found in associations between the AMIS-II and measures of child responsibility for SB-related care, ability to perform condition-related skills, and adaptive behaviors (r ’s = 0.378 –0.777; p’s < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study provides further evidence of strong reliability and validity for the AMIS-II. Additional research with this measure will facilitate a better understanding of factors related to self-management behaviors in adolescents and young adults with spina bifida.
Keywords: Self-management, independence, adolescents, young adults, spina bifida, parents