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The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Strawberry, one of the most commonly berries consumed in the Mediterranean diet, is a rich source of antioxidants and phenolic compounds that exert beneficial effects on human health. However, to date, there is a lack of investigation about its cytotoxic effects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the cytotoxicity of a strawberry extract, particular rich in bioactive compounds, on different cellular models. METHODS: Human dermal fibroblast (HDF), RAW macrophages and Hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells were treated with different concentrations of strawberry extract (25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 2500, 5000,…7500 and 10000 μg/mL) for 24, 48, 72 h. Cellular viability was performed through MTT assay. RESULTS: Strawberry extract showed no cytotoxic effects after 24 h of incubation in all cell lines, while after 48 h cytotoxic effects were observed at elevated concentrations (5000 μg/mL for HDF, 7500 μg/mL for RAW macrophages and 1000 μg/mL for HepG2). After 72 h, the concentration of 250 μg/mL resulted cytotoxic for HepG2, while for HDF and RAW cells the same toxic effect was obtained with a 10-fold higher concentration. CONCLUSIONS: This paper provides evidence that strawberry extract may exert cytotoxicity in vitro , depending on cell type, incubation time and concentrations applied. These aspects should be taken into account when experimental design is planned.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction is a major hallmark of most types of cardiovascular diseases. Numerous plant extracts have been shown to cause endothelium-dependent relaxations by increasing the endothelial formation of the potent vasoprotective factor, nitric oxide (NO). OBJECTIVE: The ability of different Ribes nigrum L. extracts (Grossulariaceae) to induce endothelium-dependent relaxation by stimulating the endothelial formation of NO was assesssed. METHODS: Ribes nigrum extracts were prepared from buds, berries and leaves by extraction (Acetone:H2 O:Acetic Acid; 70/28/2 (v/v/v)) and lyophilized after acetone evaporation. The ability of the extracts to stimulate the endothelial formation of…NO was assessed using cultured endothelial cells and isolated porcine coronary artery rings. RESULTS: The Ribes nigrum leaf extract increased to a greater extent than the bud and the berry extracts the formation of NO, and up-regulated eNOS mRNA expression in cultured endothelial cells (the stimulatory effects amounted to 197±9%, 134±6% and 118±5%, respectively). The leaf extract induced greater relaxations of isolated coronary arteries with endothelium than the bud and the berry extracts whereas no such effects were observed in rings without endothelium. Relaxations to the leaf extract were minimally affected by indomethacin and by inhibitors of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization response, and markedly reduced by NG -nitro-L-arginine. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings indicate that the Ribes nigrum leaf extract is a more potent inducer of the endothelial formation of NO than the bud and the berry extracts.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Salicylic acid (SA) is a phenolic-endogenous plant hormone and its ameliorative effects against abiotic stresses have been well documented. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of salinity and SA on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants responses of ‘Selva’ strawberry plants with respect to the time of SA application. METHOD: Well-rooted daughter strawberry plants cv. Selva, were potted in 3 L plastic pots and after their establishment, were sprayed with 0.5 or 1.0 mM salicylic acid solutions one week before, during or one week after being exposed to 40 mM NaCl salinity. Experiments were carried out as bi-factorial in a…completely randomized design. RESULTS: The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase increased by both salinity and SA treatments. The highest antioxidant enzymes activity was observed in plants treated with SA one week before being exposed to salinity stress. These plants had both higher proline and glycine betaine contents and lower protein degradation. CONCLUSION: Before being exposed to salinity stress, treating strawberry plants with salicylic acid probably by improving their antioxidant systems will prepare them to cope better with the deleterious effects of salt stress.
Keywords: Fragariaananassa, growth, salinity stress, salicylic acid, time of application
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Black currant (BC) and yerba mate (YM) have high contents of polyphenolic antioxidants beneficial for health. Obtaining freeze-dried BC/YM instant drinks can be a means for providing their advantages to consumers. However, their high sugar contents make them very hygroscopic causing undesirable changes in color and bioactives concentration. OBJECTIVE: To solve this problem it is necessary to determine the powder’s sorption properties and the temperature/relative humidity’s (RH) influence on their color and polyphenol, ascorbic acid and anthocyanins’s concentrations. METHODS: We analyzed the sorption isotherms of freeze-dried BC/YM/maltodextrin/sugar powder at 10/20/40°C and compared them with…those from YM/maltodextrin. RESULTS: Of all models tested (Caurie, GAB, Halsey, Oswin) GAB was the best. Monolayer moisture values (Wm) were ≤0.1 kg H2 O (kg d.m)−1 indicating good stability. Due to its higher sugar content, BC/YM powders were more hygroscopic and with higher exothermic isosteric sorption heat (Qst ) than YM powders. Qst and differential entropy decreased exponentially with increasing moisture levels. Within the experimental conditions, isokinetic theory indicated that the whole sorption process was enthalpy controlled. Temperature and RH strongly modified BC/YM’s color and ascorbic acid and monomeric anthocyanins concentrations. At all temperatures, optimum levels of these properties required RH ≤33%. To achieve maximum physicochemical quality and stability the powder’s moisture content must be ≤Wm, in this case, RH dropped to 9% (10°C) and 11.3% (20°C/40°C).
Keywords: Black currant, Yerba mate, sorption properties, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, color
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, such as berry fruits, reduces the risk of many chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutraceutical proprieties of wild and cultivated blackberry (Rubus sp .) and wild elderberry (Sambuca nigra ) fruits produced in some regions of Southern Italy, such as Basilicata and Campania. METHODS: Liquid chromatography and HPLC-UV system were used for the identification and quantification of individual health-promoting compounds. RESULTS: A comparative analysis of nutraceutical…compounds in berry fruits produced by different regions of South Italy showed a high significant variability inter species (p < 0.05), independently on location area, with higher values for wild than cultivated blackberries for the major part of compounds. CONCLUSIONS: In this paper, differences in the health-promoting compounds of berry fruits belonging from different areas of South Italy were reported.
Keywords: Blackberry, elderberry, nutraceutical compounds, red fruits, wild berry species
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Black mulberry is a good source of bioactive compounds and especially of anthocyanin. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphological, biochemical, technological and antioxidant properties of black mulberry fruit and fruit-derived food products. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total anthocyanin content, total sugar content, ascorbic acid content, pH and antioxidant activity was analyzed in black mulberry juice, jam, jelly, syrup, liqueur, compote, wine and cake. All products were produced from selected genotypes of black mulberry grown in Slovakia. RESULTS: Reducing sugar content ranged from 6.50 mg.kg–1 FM in wine to…60.01 mg.kg–1 FM in jam, ascorbic acid content was from 0.27 mg.100 g–1 FM in wine to 1.10 mg.100 g–1 FM in fruits conserved in honey without sterilization. Content of anthocyanin varied from 21.4 in wine to 106.4 mg.dm–3 in fresh juice. Detected pH values ranged from 3.28 in jelly to 3.69 in liqueur. All tested samples had strong DPPH· radical scavenging activity with the best values in black mulberry compote with honey –74.02% and jam 71.22% FM. Differences between the genotypes were significant and the content of the anthocyanin was significantly higher in genotypes with lower fruit weight (P ≤0.05). CONCLUSION: The results showed that black mulberry fruits and derived products are rich in biologically active compounds and can be used in food industry and human nutrition.
Keywords: Antioxidant, anthocyanin, pH, sugar, ascorbic acid, black mulberry
Abstract: BACKGROUND: A high incidence of root and crown rot of strawberries (Macrophomina phaseolina ) has been observed in major strawberry production regions. In Chile, the pathogen was reported in strawberry plants in 2013. A strategy for disease management is the use of resistant cultivars. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of eleven strawberry cultivars to the disease. METHODS: Two trials were conducted. A first trial was performed under greenhouse conditions, with plants propagated by runners and inoculated by oat seeds infected with M. phaseolina . The impact of the disease…on the growth of the plants and incidence were assessed. The second trial was performed in a growth chamber. Plants were obtained by in-vitro multiplication and were inoculated with a suspension of sclerotia of the same isolate. Plant mortality was assessed. RESULTS: Significant differences in susceptibility were observed among the eleven strawberry cultivars, with ‘Florida Festival’, ‘Amiga’ and ‘Naiad’ as the least susceptible cultivars, while ‘Florida Fortuna’ was the most susceptible cultivar in both trials. CONCLUSIONS: Differences were detected in terms of susceptibility of cultivars to root and crown rot of strawberry caused by M. phaseolina . This work contributes to knowledge about the susceptibility of strawberry cultivars to this disease.