Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 9, issue 5
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: RBCs aggregation plays a very important role at the microcirculatory level. In order to have a better understanding of the different parameters involved, we first presented results obtained in glass capillaries. The existence of a plasmatic layer and of a yield shear stress and the effect on the viscosity of RBCs suspensions has been proved. We then after presented results obtained on rats when the RBCs aggregation level was modified. The increase of the hydraulic resistance, important modifications of the systemic blood pressure, of the cardiac frequency and of the electrocardiogram were observed. Effect of troxerutine were studied.
Abstract: Compaction stasis, which occurs in certain diseases and conditions, is generally considered to be without increased capillary or vascular permeability. In inflammation, however, compaction stasis occurs together with increased capillary permeability for which the term ‘Cohnheim compaction phenomenon’ was introduced. Our studies of whole human blood with hematocrits from 60 to 96 per cent have been made, since reversible compaction stasis occurs with high concentrations of erythrocytes. Measurements of blood with these high hematocrits in whole human blood, employing the cone and plate geometry of the Weissenberg Rheogoniometer, showed that in steady shear normal stress was present an that at…very low shear rates plug flow was indicated. Experiments in oscillatory flow showed and elastic modulus. A brief survey of studies related to compaction stasis and the Cohnheim compaction phenomenon is given. The survey is also concerned with acute, sterile inflammation, in which the erythrocytes are aggregated or reversibly clumped. A differentiation is made between reversible and irreversible compaction stasis. In reversible compaction stasis, the erythrocytes are aggregated or reversibly clumped and thus can desaggragate. Irreversible compaction stasis, in which the erythrocytes are irreversibly clumped or agglutinated, may be associated with infections. The affected vessel walls and erythrocyte agglutinates may then contain microorganisms and/or their products. We found experimental evidence that in conditions of reversible compaction stasis, in which increased capillary permeability was not suspected, such as in polycythemia, shock and mountain sickness, increased focal capillary permeability can occur, indicating the Cohnheim compaction phenomenon.
Abstract: We studied hematocrit, blood and plasma viscosity as well as the erythrocyte aggregation index in a group of 55 healthy newborns and in 16 mothers without risk factors for neonatal diseases. 39 healthy adults were considered as control group. We found that the newborns showed a significantly lower erythrocyte aggregation index compared to that of the control group, whereas their hematocrit was significantly higher. The healthy newborns also showed very low plasma viscosity and plasma fibrinogen level compared to those of the adults. The peculiar hemorheologic pattern of the healthy newborn, although rather different from that of the healthy adult,…may be considered as “near normal”.
Abstract: Viscoelasticity of whole blood and plasma viscosity have been measured with an oscillating capillary rheometer routinely in patients with arteriosclerotic risk factors. Significantly higher values of the hemorheologic parameters are found in such patients. No correlation to other risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipemia, smoking) could be found. Long term treatment of the patients with hemorheologically active drugs can induce a decrease of the pathologically increased viscoelastic parameters which become significant after three months of treatment. The response of the patients to different drugs varies individually, therefore, each patient and each drug should be checked during the treatment continuously.
Keywords: whole blood viscoelasticity, plasma viscosity, drug treatment
Abstract: We evaluated the red cell membrane dynamic property and the mean erythrocyte aggregation (MEA) in vascular atherosclerotic disease (VAD). Our study includes two group of subjects with VAD. In the first group the ghosts were marked with DPH and the membrane microviscosity was calculated from the polarization degree. In the second group the red cell membrane fluidity was evaluated on intact red cells using the fluorescent label pyrene and calculating the Iex/Im ratio; in this group the subjects were subdivided according to the mono (MVAD) or polivascular (PVAD) lesions. From the obtained data the different trend of the membrane microviscosity…and of the membrane fluidity is evident; more homogeneous is the behaviour of the MEA that in VAD is significantly increased. No significant correlations are evident between and MEA and between Iex/Im and MEA. Interesting the findings regarding the relationships between the rheological determinants and some individual phospholipids.
Keywords: vascular atherosclerotic disease, membrane fluidity, red cell aggregation
Abstract: In this study, hematocrit, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, albumin, red cell aggregation and disaggregation threshold were measured on 20 control subjects and on 438 diabetic patients with and without vascular complications, with good and poor metabolic control. The rheological disturbances were characterized by a significant increase of red cell aggregation tendency at low shear rate, of red cell disaggregation thresholds, and by a significant increase of fibrinogen level and decrease of albumin level. The rheological disturbances observed may confirm the role of rheological phenomena in the genesis of diabetic microangiopathy.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Hemorheology, Red cell aggregation, Red cell disaggregation, Fibrinogen
Abstract: Erythrocyte adhesion to endothelial cells was measured using human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture and a radiometric method. Erythrocyte adhesion was found to be increased in a group of twelve diabetics as compared to normal. The increase in adhesion was statistically significant (p<0.001) and was modified by the addition of Troxerutine in vitro. Troxerutine at a concentration of 10−6 M impaired the abnormal erythrocyte adhesion observed in diabetics but from these results we cannot extrapolate the in vivo effect of the drug.
Abstract: Blood rheological abnormalities play an important role in venous pathology as does varicose vein disease. In this study the essential microrheological parameters (hematocrit, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, erythrocyte aggregation and deformability) were tested on 20 control subjects and 20 patients having varicose veins in the legs. The measurements were taken on samples collected at an antecubital vein, on leg veins before and after 30 minutes of stasis. Those patients having varicose veins of the lower limbs showed aggravated rheological disturbances after stasis. In the veins, where the blood flow rate is the lowest, the erythrocyte aggregation appeared as the fundamental parameter…associated with the alteration of red cell deformability and with the increase of plasma viscosity.
Abstract: Rheological factors appear to be of a great importance in Venous Insufficiency. They are related to several biological disorders, as haemoconcentration and imbalance of plasma proteins, and are markedly increased in varicose and/or altered veins. Erythrocyte hyperaggregation is thought to be the most interesting physiopathological disturbance, related, in such patients, to alteration of thyxotropic properties of the blood, as well as structural defects of low flow forming red blood cells aggregates. Troxerutine, a potent drug on vessel wall, exhibits in patients a direct action on red cell aggregation, particularly marked at high doses. The beneficial effects of troxerutine should therefore…be exerted via actions on vessel wall and red blood cells.
Keywords: Red cell aggregation, venous insufficiency, troxerutine
Abstract: Erythrocyte aggregation was studied in patients with dysglobulinemia. By using a light reflectometry technique, it was demonstrated an hyperaggregation state in all patients. Following plasma exchange, it was demonstrated an improvement of aggregation. However, the extent of aggregation parameter variations was not identical in all cases, suggesting that patients may react differently to plasma exchange.