Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 74, issue 4
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: In the hands of experienced examiners, the contrast enhanced sonography (CEUS) offers the possibility to analyze dynamic microcirculatory disturbances in real time dynamically without any risk for kidneys and thyroid gland even in severe progressing disease bedside. Based on severe COVID-19 infections, first experiences with abdominal CEUS examinations are presented. In the stage of an imminent organ failure with significantly reduced kidney and liver function, CEUS can be used to show a narrowing of the organ-supplying arteries, as well as a delayed capillary filling of vessels near the capsule, a regional reduced parenchymal perfusion or an inflammatory hyperemia with capillary…hypercirculation. It is possible to quickly rule out organ infarction and to dynamically record the mesenteric arterial and venous blood flow.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic Germany missed to set up efficient containment measures. Consequently, the number of cases increased exponentially until a lockdown was implemented to suppress the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Fortunately, Germany has a high capability for coronavirus lab testing and more than 30,000 ICU beds. These capabilities and the lockdown turned out to be an advantage to combat the pandemic and to prevent a health-system overload. AIM: The aim was to predict the plateau day of SARS-CoV-2 infections or deaths. RESULTS: The effect on the viral spread of the German…measures taken and the impact on the peak of new infection cases is shown. By normalizing daily case numbers, the plateau day of the current outbreak in Germany could be calculated to be reached at April 12, 2020 (day 103 of 2020). CONCLUSION: Normalized case number curves are helpful to predict the time point at which no further new infections will occur if the epidemic situation remains stable. Upon reaching the plateau day during a lockdown phase, a residual time-period of about 2-3 weeks can be utilized to prepare a safe unlocking period. As can be learned from Asian countries such as South Korea and Taiwan there must be strict rules to keep the risk of infection low. Those include social distancing, face mask wearing in combination with digital contact tracing and serosurveillance studies. Following those rules, a safe dance around the infection curve allows to keep the population at a reduced infection rate.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To identify the associated factors for malignancy in partially cystic thyroid nodules (PCTNs) on ultrasound (US). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study. 338 PCTNs confirmed by surgery was included in this study. The US features of the nodules were reviewed and their significance in differential diagnosis was analyzed. RESULTS: In the 338 PCTNs, 50 were malignant and 288 were benign. Univariate analyses revealed that a taller-than-wide shape and spiculated or microlobulated margin were significantly associated with malignancy while the spongy form, an ovoid to round shape and smooth margin were significantly associated with…benign nature. In terms of the internal solid portion of the nodule, eccentric configuration, non-smooth margin, hypoechogenicity, and microcalcification were more frequently demonstrated in malignant nodules than in benign ones. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, a taller than wide shape (OR: 13.357; 95% CIs: 3.457–28.797) was revealed to be the strongest independent predictor for malignancy, followed by microcalcification (OR: 11.578; 95% CIs: 3.142–29.563), spiculated or microlobulated margin (OR: 6.331; 95% CIs: 1.425–9.457), eccentric configuration (OR: 5.456; 95% CIs: 1.358–8.774), non-smooth rim of the internal solid portion (OR: 4.897; 95% CIs: 0.754–7.021), and hypoechogenicity of the internal solid portion (OR: 4.651; 95% CIs: 0.712–8.245). CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the ultrasound characteristics of malignant PCTNs is important to make a precise diagnosis of thyroid nodules.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine on cerebral oxygen saturation [Sct(O2 )] and postoperative cognitive function in elderly patients undergoing minimally invasive coronary artery bypass graft surgery. METHODS: Sixty elderly patients who received minimally invasive coronary artery bypass graft surgery were randomly equally divided into dexmedetomidine group (group D) and control group (group N). The patients in group D were pumped with 1 μg/kg dexmedetomidine for 15 min before incision, followed by continuous pumping at 0.3–0.5 μg/(kg·h) till the end of the operation. The patients in group N received same dose of normal saline during…the operation. Sct(O2 ) was monitored at pre-induction (T0), post-induction (T1), 30 min (T2) after single-lung ventilation, and after surgery (T3). Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was used to assess the cognitive function at 1 day before, 72 hour and 7 days after surgery. RESULTS: Sct(O2 ) level in group D was significantly higher than that in group N at T2 (P < 0.05). Sct(O2 ) level was statistically lower at T2 than that at T0, T1 and T3 in the same group N (P < 0.05). At 72 h and 7d after operation, the incidence of cognitive dysfunction in group D was markedly lower than that in group N (P < 0.05), the MMSE score in group D was markedly higher than those in group N, but was significantly lower than that before surgery (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Dexmedetomidine can alleviate the decrease of Sct(O2 ) during single-lung ventilation, improve postoperative cognitive function, and reduce the incidence of POCD in elderly patients with minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the combined use of strain elastography (SE) and superb microvascular imaging (SMI) with grayscale ultrasound (US) according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification for differentiating benign from malignant breast masses. METHODS: In total, 166 patients with 177 breast masses categorized as BI-RADS 3–5 were included in the study between April 2016 to September 2017. US, SMI and SE were performed to evaluate each mass. The following outcome measures were compared between US and the combinations of US, SMI, and SE: area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity.…RESULTS: The addition of SMI and SE to US increased the AUC from 0.816 to 0.948 (P < .001); and the specificity from 43.7% to 80.8% (P < .001), without a significant decrease in the sensitivity. Meanwhile, 66.1% (37 of 56) of the benign masses that were indicated for unnecessary biopsy were correctly changed to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The addition SMI and SE to US could improve the diagnostic performance in differentiating benign from malignant breast masses compared to US alone. When US was combined with SMI and SE, the specificity were increased, thus significantly reducing unnecessary biopsies.
Keywords: Breast cancer, superb microvascular imaging, strain elastography, ultrasonography
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The behavior of endothelial cells is remarkably influenced by the physical and biochemical signals from their surrounding microenvironments. OBJECTIVE: Here, the elasticity of fiber meshes was studied as a design parameter of substrates for endothelial cells in order to modulate angiogenesis. METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured on electrospun fiber meshes made from polyetheresterurethane (PEEU), differing in their elasticity. Cell morphology, proliferation, migration and angiogenesis of endothelial cells on the degradable substrate meshes were characterized. RESULTS: The aspect ratio of HUVECs cultured on the fiber meshes from PEEU materials increased…with increasing stiffness of the materials. HUVECs cultured on fiber meshes with high stiffness (Young’s modulus E = 4.5±0.8 MPa) presented a higher proliferation rate and significantly faster migration velocity, as well as higher tube formation capability than the cells cultured on fiber meshes with low stiffness (E = 2.6±0.8 MPa). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that tuning the fiber meshes’ elasticity might be a potential strategy for modulating the formation or regeneration of blood vessels.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND AIM: Both chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and chronic continuous hypoxia (CCH) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which are associated with cardiac systolic function and associated with dysfunction of endothelia and coagulation-fibrinolysis system in the vasculature. However, the different effects of these two hypoxic models are not fully understood. In our study, we systemically compared the effects of CIH and CCH on cardiac function and related factor levels in serum using rat model. METHODS: Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the normoxia control (NC), CIH and CCH groups. The rat CIH and CCH models…were established, then the blood and tissue samples were collected to analyze the function of endothelium and the coagulation-fibrinolysis system. Also, the ultrasound cardiogram was performed to directly assess myocardial contractility. RESULTS: Both CIH and CCH significantly decreased the NO, eNOS, P-eNOS and AT-III levels in the rat serum but significantly increased the levels of ET-1, vWF, COX-2, NF-κ B, FIB, FVIII and PAI-1 in the rat serum (P < 0.05). The expression of ET-1, VWF and ICAM-1 in CIH group were higher than CCH group (P < 0.05), however, the expression of CD62p was increased in CCH group but not in CIH group. The expression of t-PA in CIH group were lower than CCH group (P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences in CCH group and NC group (P > 0.05). Using transmission electron microscope, we found that the mitochondrial ultrastructure of thoracic aorta endothelial cells in CIH and CCH group were damaged. Moreover, the myocardial contractility in CIH and CCH group were significantly decreased compared with NC group. CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that CIH and CCH could cause endothelial dysfunction, dysfunction of the coagulation-fibrinolysis system and decreasing of myocardial contractility. Compared with CCH, CIH has greater effect on vasoconstriction and adhesion of vascular endothelial cells, and stronger procoagulant effect.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: In this proof-of-concept study we aim to validate a novel ultrasound Doppler monitoring device for evaluating microcirculation (earlybird) against LDF and pulsed Doppler. METHODS: In ten healthy subjects, we measured microcirculatory function at rest and during different autonomic tests (forced respiration, isometric exercise, Valsalva maneuver and cold pressor). Earlybird, LDF and pulsed Doppler were recorded simultaneously. We performed a ZNCC to determine correlation. RESULTS: The curves for earlybird and LDF or pulsed Doppler correlates visually well. Overall median ZNCC 0.87 (interquartile range 0.77 –0.91) between the LDF and earlybird measurements, and 0.90 (0.82 – 0.95)…for pulsed Doppler and earlybird. Median ZNCC for baseline and each provocation test for earlybird against LDF and pulsed Doppler were calculated; baseline: LDF 0.87 (0.73 – 0.97) pulsed Doppler 0.91 (0.81 – 0.94), forced respiration: LDF 0.87 (0.28 – 0.90) pulsed Doppler 0.90 (0.85 – 0.96), isometric exercise: LDF 0.82 (0.59 – 0.90) pulsed Doppler 0.87 (0.68 – 0.94), Valsalva maneuver: LDF 0.88 (0.82 – 0.91) pulsed Doppler 0.94 (0.92 – 0.97) and cold pressor: LDF 0.90 (0.85 – 0.95) pulsed Doppler 0.89 (0.65 – 0.94). CONCLUSION: Earlybird records vasoconstrictions in healthy subjects as well as LDF and pulsed Doppler.