Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 72, issue 1
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution is associated with cardiovascular disease, including increased morbidity and mortality rates. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this investigation was to assess the effect, in rats, of intratracheal instillation of particulate air pollution on biomarkers of leucocyte activation and vascular endothelial damage. METHODS: Air pollution particles (PM10) were instilled into rats, and blood samples were taken three days and six weeks post instillation. Plasma neutrophil elastase and Von Willebrand factor were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Plasma neutrophil elastase increased from 175±44 ng/ml at baseline to 288±26 ng/ml 3 days post instillation…(p = 0.038). vWF increased from 0.160±0.015 IU/ml at baseline to 0.224±0.015 IU/ml at 3 days post and 0.208±0.01 IU/ml at 6 weeks post (p = 0.006, ANOVA). sICAM-1 increased from 17.75±0.70 ng/ml at baseline to 19.03±0.33 ng/ml at 3 days post and 21.72±1.16 ng/ml at 6 weeks post (p = 0.009, ANOVA). CONCLUSION: Instillation caused prolonged systemic inflammation, activation of blood leucocytes and damage to the vascular endothelium.
Keywords: Particles, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, endothelial damage and leucocyte
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Damage of the endothelial glycocalyx (EG) has been described during surgery, but the effect of different anesthesia techniques remains unknown. Perfused boundary region (PBR) evaluated by side-stream dark field (SDF) imaging of the sublingual microcirculation enables in vivo EG assessment. PBR values are inversely related to the EG thickness. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the observational study was to evaluate the changes of PBR in patients undergoing elective joint surgery under general (GA) vs. neuraxial anesthesia (NA). Our hypothesis was that PBR will be lower in patients in NA. METHODS: Sixty consecutive patients (ASA 1–3)…undergoing elective total knee or hip replacement under GA or NA were included in this prospective observational cohort study. PBR in the sublingual microcirculation was recorded in each patient using SDF at two time points - before surgery and 2 hours after surgery. RESULTS: Before surgery, there was no significant difference in baseline PBR between groups (NA: 1.95 μm (±0.24); GA: 2.02 μm (±0.26); p = 0.098). Postoperatively (2 hours after surgery) PBR was significantly increased in both groups with respect to baseline values (NA: 2.09 μm (±0.19), GA: 2.20 μm (±0.25); p < 0.001). In the GA group, postoperative PBR values were significantly higher than in the NA group (p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Joint surgery led to significant increases of PBR. Patients in the GA group had significantly higher PBR values 2 hours after surgery compared to NA group. This might implicate that NA is associated with less EG damage then GA in elective hip/knee surgery.
Keywords: Endothelial glycocalyx, neuraxial anesthesia, joint surgery
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Carotid stenting stimulates intimal proliferation through platelet and stem cell activation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the administration before or after carotid stenting of clopidogrel loading dose may play a role on circulating endothelial progenitor cells, stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α ) and neointimal hyperplasia. METHODS: We recruited 13 patients (aged 74.52±7.23) with indication of carotid revascularization and in therapy with salicylic acid and statin. We blindly randomized them in two groups: pre-carotid angioplasty with stent (Pre-CAS group) receiving 300 mg of clopidogrel before stenting, and post-carotid angioplasty with stent (Post-CAS…group) receiving 300 mg after stenting. At the admission, we valued endothelial progenitor cells, SDF-1α and prospectively we repeated blood samples and measured intima-media thickness to estimate neointimal hyperplasia on the stent at 3, 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: In the days following the CAS, we found a lower, statistically not significant, trend of endothelial progenitor cells in Pre-CAS group. The SDF-1α concentration tended to be lower at baseline in the pre-CAS group than in the post-CAS group and it did not show an increase in the observed time. On the contrary, in the Post-CAS group we observed a peak at six hours with a significant reduction (p < 0.001) at one day after stenting. The intima-media thickness was significantly lower in the Pre-CAS group than the Post-CAS group both at six months and 12 months after stenting. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-stenting clopidogrel loading dose leaded to short-time modification of endothelial progenitor cells and platelets and to long-term a minor neointimal hyperplasia.
Abstract: Ultrasound elastography has been introduced into clinical practice for a decade and arisen continuous increasing attention worldwide. Shear wave elastography (SWE) is a further extension of ultrasound elastography on the basis of strain elastography, providing a two-dimensional distribution map of tissue stiffness and quantitative measurement of the tissue stiffness in Young’s modulus (kPa) and/or shear wave speed (m/s). The Society of Ultrasound in Medicine, Chinese Medical Association (CMA) has recently released a series of guidelines for the use of SWE, including the technique and principle of SWE, and use of SWE in liver fibrosis, breast, thyroid, and musculoskeletal system. Herein,…a part of SWE in thyroid nodules is presented. In this guideline, the background, classification and technology of SWE, examination methods, diagnostic performance, prognosis evaluation, reproducibility, and limitations are discussed and recommendations are given. The recommendations are based on the published literatures with regard to SWE with different levels of evidence, particularly a mid-term result of the prospective multi-center clinical trial of SWE in thyroid, as well as the Society of Ultrasound in Medicine, CMA expert’s consensus. The document provides an overall analysis of SWE in thyroid from clinical perspective, which aimed to provide recommendations to the clinicians with regard to the management of thyroid nodules by the assistance of SWE.
Abstract: The objective of this research was to investigate the clinical value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for prediction of cervical lymph node metastasis (CLNM) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). One hundred and eighty-six patients with PTC confirmed by fine needle aspiration (FNA) were preoperatively performed CEUS.A multivariate analysis was performed to predict CLNM by 15 independent variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance. There were totally 37 patients with CLNM confirmed by pathology. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that intensity at peak time, capsule contact and size on CEUS were the three strongest…independent predictors for CLNM. ROC analyses of these characteristics showed the areas under the curve (Az), sensitivity, and specificity were 0.650, 48.6 %, 79.8 %; 0.586, 67.6%, 49.7%; and 0.612, 56.8%, 64.4% for intensity at peak time, capsule contact, and size, respectively. The CEUS patterns of PTC are relative to not only the size of PTC but also the possibility of CLNM after thyroidectomy. CEUS seem to be a tool to predict CLNM in PTC patients.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hemorheologic alterations have been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular complications. We measured various hemorheologic parameters and assessed their possible role as a diagnostic tool for diabetic nephropathy (DN). METHODS: 248 subjects with type 2 diabetes and 222 subjects with prediabetes were included in this study. Hemorheologic parameters, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), elongation index at 3 Pa (EI) were measured using microfluidic hemorheometer. Various metabolic parameters were measured from fasting blood samples. The subjects were stratified into three groups according to classification of DN by urinary albumin to creatinine…ratio (ACR) and four groups by estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), than analyzed. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed in metabolic and hemorheologic parameters according to progression of DN. Among them, (Fibrinogen×ESR)/ EI differed in all three groups of urinary ACR. In multiple regression analysis, (Fibrinogen×ESR)/ EI was an independent predictor of urine ACR after adjusted with confounding factors (ß = 0.010, p < 0.001). (Fibrinogen×ESR)/ EI also showed significant difference no or minimal CKD stage, moderate CKD and severe CKD classified by GFR. This parameter showed area under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.762, and moderate sensitivity and specificity to predict prevalence of microalbuminuria. CONCLUSIONS: (Fibrinogen×ESR)/ EI is a sensitive parameter for screening diabetic nephropathy.
Keywords: Diabetic nephropathy, RBC deformability, hemorheology, elongation index
Abstract: PURPOSE: To assess the postprocedure findings after percutaneous irreversible electroporation (IRE) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Percutaneous IRE was performed in a total of 22 patients with 24 HCC tumours following interdisciplinary tumour board review. The lesions were documented using CEUS before, immediately and within 24 hours after IRE. During follow-up CEUS was performed at 6 weeks and 3, 9, and 12 months after ablation. Two experienced radiologists evaluated the acquired CEUS image date in a consensus reading. RESULTS: Median tumour size before treatment was 13.7±4.8 mm (short axis) and 16.0±5.2 mm…(long axis). All HCC lesions showed arterial hyperenhancement in CEUS. Median size of the ablation defect after ablation was 29.3±5.2 mm (short axis) and 31.6±5.6 mm (long axis). After IRE all tumours showed complete devascularization. The size of the ablation defects showed significant shrinkage and reduced peripheral enhancement in the course of follow-up. At 12 months follow-up the ablation defect size decreased to 16.7±4.3 mm (short axis) and 18.3±4.1 mm (long axis). CONCLUSION: CEUS showed a complete devascularization of HCC tumours after IRE. Post-intervetional peripheral enhancement returned to normal during follow-up and may represent zones of reversible damage of cellular integrity through electroporation. A significant shrinkage of the ablation defects during 12 month of follow-up was seen in all cases.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TI-RADS), classified and determined the risk of thyroid nodule malignancy with ultrasound scanning. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is newly developed methods which could measure perfusion features. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the value of diagnosing thyroid nodules using TI-RADS combined with CEUS and determine whether improvements were made to the diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: The features of conventional ultrasonography (US) and CEUS ion 117 case of thyroid nodules samples, which were confirmed by fine-needle aspiration and/or surgery, were retrospectively analyzed. The independent US and CEUS predictors…for malignancy were determined and quantified using logistic regression analysis. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to compare the diagnostic efficiency of each method in predicting malignant solid thyroid nodules. RESULTS: The TI-RADS + CEUS combination had the highest accuracy (94.02%), sensitivity (94.74%), specificity (93.33%), PPV (93.10%) and NPV (94.92%), significantly greater than that of TI-RADS alone and CEUS alone (χ 2 = 8.746, P < 0.001; χ 2 = 9.825, P < 0.001). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of TI-RADS alone, CEUS alone, and combined use of TI-RADS and CEUS were 0.871, 0.884, and 0.942, respectively. The following conventional US and CEUS features based on logistic regression analysis showed significant predictive value for thyroid malignant nodules: Obscure margin, calcification, hypoechoic, low enhancement, rim-like enhancement. CONCLUSIONS: TI-RADS in combination with CEUS has superior diagnostic efficiency in the discrimination of benign and malignant thyroid lesions, compared with TI-RADS and CEUS alone.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The endothelial glycocalyx (EG) is fragile and sensitive to damage such as exposure to hypernatremia. Our aim was to describe the influence of hypernatremia on the EG in sublingual and brain microcirculation in rabbits. METHODS: Hypernatremia was induced by intravenous administration of 10% NaCl solution. The sublingual and brain microcirculation were evaluated by the Side-stream Dark Field imaging before (T1) and 20 minutes after infusion of 10% saline (T2). Damage to the EG was quantified by automated analysis of Perfused Boundary Region (PBR) indicating the amount of penetration of red blood cells into the EG.…Syndecan-1 levels were also measured. RESULTS: Hypernatremia was reached in all 20 animals, the PBR values of the sublingual area raised from 1,98 (0,3) to 2,17 (0,18) μ m (p = 0,05). The levels of syndecan-1 (1,23 (0,36); 1,31 (0,33) ng/l, p = 0,3) did not mirror PBR changes. CONCLUSIONS: Hypernatremia increased the PBR within the sublingual microcirculation in our animal model, probably due to compression of the EG related to temporary intravascular hypervolemia and changes of the EG charge in RBC instead of direct damaging effect on EG, which has been excluded by rather unchanged levels of syndecan-1.