Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 69, issue 1-2
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: AIM: To investigate three-year outcomes of patients presenting with nonSTelevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) treated with bioresorbable everolimus-eluting vascular scaffolds (BRS). METHODS AND RESULTS: The study included a total of 488 consecutive patients, enrolled between May 2012 and December 2013 (median age 65 [56–74], 392 men. 269 patients presented with either NSTEMI or unstable angina at the time of enrolling, 219 patients with stable or silent angina. The primary device-oriented endpoint (Target Lesion Failure, TLF) was defined as a combination of cardiovascular death, target vessel myocardial infarction or clinically driven target lesion revascularization. Among the cardiac risk factors,…NSTE-ACS patients were more frequently smokers (P = 0.028), had less frequently dyslipidemia (P = 0.003) and a history of prior PCI (P < 0.01). The median follow-up was 1070[763–1197] days. The three-years incidence of TLF was slightly higher but did not differ significantly between groups (NSTE-ACS: 16.3% vs. 15.9%, p = 0.163). Accordingly, there was no difference in any of the other endpoints. CONCLUSION: Treatment of NSTE-ACS with BRS appears to be safe and effective. In this group, risk factors for events during follow up did not differ as compared to the general population.
Abstract: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) remains a major public health burden worldwide. It is estimated that one third of adults in the United States has some form of IHD, including more than 17 million with coronary artery disease (CAD) and nearly 10 million with angina pectoris [1 ]. Nevertheless, the detection of myocardial ischemia in patients with presumed CAD remains a challenge in contemporary practice.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cutaneous microcirculation (cMC) is influenced by many factors. In cardiac surgery, most operations are performed with a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and cardiac arrest induced by cardioplegic solutions. OBJECTIVES: Aim of this study was to examine a correlation between cMC and hemodynamic parameters in patients undergoing heart surgery with two different cardioplegic solutions. METHODS: 20 patients were included and divided into Histidine-Tryptophane-α-Ketoglutarate solution- (HTK, n = 10) and blood cardioplegia- (BCP, n = 10) groups. With initiation of CPB, cMC was continuously monitored with Laser-Doppler-Perfusion (LDP) until termination of CPB. Additionally, we measured hemoglobin-concentration (HbC) with a Blood-Parameter-Monitoring-System.…RESULTS: LDP pulsation was almost equal before and after CPB and decreased during aortic cross clamping. The following factors influenced LDP: central venous pressure (CVP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), total peripheral resistance (TPR) and flow of the heart-lung machine. We measured relative LDP and HbC (RLDP; RHbC). Five and 25 min after administration of cardioplegia, RLDP (1.22±0.8; 1.17±0.94) and RHbC (0.92±0.06; 0.96±0.09) in the HTK-group were lower than in the BCP-group: RLDP (1.58±1.11; 1.58±2.2) and RHbC (1.00±0.05; 0.99±0.13). HTK-patients with a body surface area (BSA) <2 m2 showed a lower RLDP (0.75±0.50), than patients over 2 m2 (RLDP = 1.64±0.97). CONCLUSIONS: The cMC is influenced by CPB. Cutaneous LDP monitoring is a non-invasive method, for estimating hemodynamics intraoperatively.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is frequently associated with vascular pathologies and hemorheological disorders. METHODS: 105 patients with diabetic retinopathy (DRP) (mean age 64.64±9.01 years, 56 males, 49 females), 35 age-matched non-diabetic (mean age 61.65±7.6 years, 14 males and 21 females) and 42 young healthy volunteers (mean age 25.52±3.32 years, 22 males, 20 females) were recruited. Lower extremity artery disease (LEAD) and microcirculatory alterations were screened by hand-held Doppler, transcutaneous partial tissue oxygen tension (tcpO2 ), tuning fork test, 6-minute walk test, erythrocyte aggregation and deformability. RESULTS: High prevalence of LEAD was detected in diabetic population: 55.3% fulfilled…the criteria of LEAD based on ankle-brachial index; severely impaired tcpO2 was measured in 18.6%. The results of non-invasive measurements of the diabetic patients were significantly worse than those of the control groups (p < 0.05). Hemorheological disturbances could be characterized by the significantly higher erythrocyte aggregation (p < 0.05) and lower erythrocyte deformability (p < 0.05) in the diabetic population. CONCLUSION: Macro- and microcirculatory lower limb disorders could be revealed at high prevalence in diabetic patients with retinopathy. Measurement of tcpO2 and hemorheological variables could be useful to discover patients at higher risk for diabetic foot complications.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, transcutaneous partial tissue oxygen pressure, red blood cell aggregation, red blood cell deformability, peripheral arterial disease
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Perioperatively, patients’ hemodynamics are modulated predominantly by intravenous fluid administration and vasoactive pharmacological support. Vasopressor agents are suspected to be detrimental on free flap survival by the cause of vasoconstriction of the pedicle with consecutive reduced overall flap perfusion and by aggravation of flap dissection. OBJECTIVE: A novel, standardized fluid restrictive perioperative hemodynamic management was assessed for its feasibility in clinical practice in free flap patients undergoing breast reconstruction. METHODS: Patients were randomized to two perioperative regimens with different fluid and vasopressor limits. The primary endpoint regarded flap survival. Secondary endpoints included surgery times, time…of patient ambulation and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: There was one total flap failure with liberal fluid administration (LFA). No total or partial flap failure was noted in the fluid restrictive regimen with norepinephrine administration up to 0.04μg/kg/min (FRV). No delay regarding operation time (p = 0.217), patient mobilization (p = 0.550) or hospital discharge (p = 0.662) was registered in the FRV study subpopulation compared to LFA. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this prospective interventional trial could not detect any negative impact of vasopressors, neither for the primary endpoint of flap survival nor for the overall patient outcome. The fear of vasopressor associated flap complications has led to a traditional liberal fluid administration, which failed to demonstrate any benefits when compared to a fluid restrictive vasopressor strategy.
Keywords: Deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap, free flap, breast reconstruction, vasopressors, norepinephrine, liberal fluid administration
Abstract: The aim of this follow-up study was to demonstrate the effect of percutaneous interventional treatment on local microcirculation of peripheral vascular malformations using CEUS and TIC analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 197 patients (136 female; 61 male; 3–86 years) with 135 venous (VM), 39 arterio-venous (AVM), 8 lymphatic and 15 veno-lymphatic peripheral vascular malformations before and after the first percutaneous treatment. CEUS was performed after i.v. injection of 1-2.4 ml of sulfur hexafluoride microbubbles (SonoVue® ) using a 6-9 MHz linear probe. Digitally stored cine loops (starting in the early arterial phase for 60 sec) were read by independent readers…in consensus. Regions of interest (ROI) were defined in the center and at the margins of the malformation, as well as in the healthy surrounding tissue. TIC analyses with Time to Peak (TTP) and Area under the Curve (AUC) were calculated using integrated perfusion software. RESULTS: After the treatment there was a significant decrease for median AUC in VM in the center from 297.8 (14.5–2167.6) rU down to 243.3 (0.1–1678.8) rU (p = 0.043) and in the surrounding tissue down to 107.7 (20.2–660.2) rU (p = 0.018). For the other malformations AUC decreased in the center and the margins as well. TTP rose, however these changes did not reach the level of significance. CONCLUSION: Analyzing the capillary microcirculation TICs offer a possibility of monitoring therapy-induced capillary changes of vascular malformations.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: With the rising number of percutaneous ablation therapies in malignant liver lesions there is a need of reliable diagnostics after the intervention to differentiate between reactive changes and tumor. PURPOSE: To assess the success of percutaneous ablation therapies for malignant liver lesions using CEUS with perfusion analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of perfusion analysis for 67 patients with 94 malignant liver lesions, treated with ablation therapies. The lesions were 70 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), 18 metastases, 4 cholangiocellular carcinomas (CCC), 2 lesions remained unclear. CEUS was performed after bolus injection of 1.6–2.4 ml of sulfur-hexafluoride microbubbles. The perfusion analysis was calculated…using Peak, TTP, mTT and AUC with integrated software during the late arterial to early portal-venous phase for approximately 9 sec (5–15 sec). For the evaluation of the success after percutaneous treatment the perfusion results were compared to the follow-up control after 6 months with CT and MRI and CEUS. RESULTS: Perfusion analyses after percutaneous treatment of malignant liver lesions showed highly significant perfusion differences when comparing the center to the surrounding tissue and the margins (p <0.0001) for Peak and also for AUC. 62 lesions were successfully treated, meaning there was no local recurrence after 6 months. In cases of residual tumor CEUS showed a nodular marginal enhancement, the corresponding perfusion analyses showed nodular red and yellow pseudo-color shades. CONCLUSIONS: Using CEUS and perfusion analysis, a critical analysis of post-ablation defects in malignant liver lesions is possible. With the help of pseudo-colors, remaining tumor-vascularization can be detected.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Renal transplant patients have a higher risk for malignancies of the renal transplant. In most cases suspected renal malignancies will be detected during the regular ultrasound follow-up and will require cross-sectional imaging to rule out a malignant aetiology. But it is well known that contrast agents for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging are critical in patients with limited renal function. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare the sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and gold standard imaging modalities in characterizing suspected renal transplant malignancies in renal transplant patients. METHODS: A total of 22…renal transplant patients who underwent one or more CEUS examinations and at least one standard imaging modality (CT or MRI) between 2005 and 2017 were included. Patient ages ranged from 28.2 years to 74.6 (mean age 55.7 years; SD±13.0 years). CEUS of 22 patients was correlated with a standard imaging modality, CT (15 out of 22) or MRI (7 out of 22), serving as gold standard. RESULTS: CEUS showed a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 94.4%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 80%, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%. CONCLUSIONS: CEUS is an eligible method to help characterizing suspected renal malignancies in renal transplant patients compared to the well-established imaging modalities CT and MRI. As an imaging modality with no nephrotoxic effects CEUS can be used repeatedly even in patients with limited renal function.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Despite of the more potent immunosuppressive medication, vascular rejection is still a major issue after renal transplantation. Renal biopsy is the gold standard diagnostic to evaluate acute and chronic allograft rejection. As it is an invasive diagnostic there is the risk of complications like haematoma, arteriovenous fistulas, active bleeding or infection. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is a non-invasive imaging modality that allows visualising renal transplant perfusion. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) compared to biopsy as gold standard in diagnosing vascular rejection in renal transplant patients. METHODS: A total of 57 renal…transplant recipients with poor renal allograft function with initial diagnostic imaging between 2006 and 2017 were included in the study. Clinical data and imaging studies were analysed retrospectively. The diagnostic accuracy of CEUS in diagnosing vascular rejection of the renal transplant was compared to renal biopsy as gold standard. Out of 57 patients 7 patients showed signs of vascular rejection in biopsy. In 6 out of these 7 patients CEUS described irregularities in renal perfusion suspicious of vascular rejection. RESULTS: CEUS showed a sensitivity of 85.7%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 98.0%. CONCLUSIONS: CEUS is a safe, non-nephrotoxic imaging modality for the initial imaging of renal transplant recipients with elevated kidney function parameters suspicious of vascular rejection. Compared to renal biopsy as gold standard CEUS shows a high specificity and PPV in detecting signs of vascular rejection. Since sub-types of vascular rejection with cellular and humoral components with greater risk for allograft loss have been described renal biopsy is inevitable in these cases.