Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 54, issue 4
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: Angiogenesis, the formation and growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature, is essential for many physiological and pathophysiological processes such as pregnancy, embryonic development, wound healing and tumors. This process is controlled by the balance between pro- and anti-angiogenic signals. The balance can be tilted by the cancer cells, which requires new vessel formation for progression. The stimulatory angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drive vascular growth by attracting and activating cells within the microenvironment of the tumor. Scientists believe that angiogenesis may be a rate-limiting for tumor growth and metastasis. An effective therapy of cancer…should involve targeting combinations of angiogenic factors as well as the tumor microenvironment.
Abstract: Red blood cells (RBC) possess a functional nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme located in the cell membrane and cytoplasm. It has previously been observed that shear stress acting on RBC activates NOS and causes enhanced NO export. The aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological importance (e.g., in local blood flow regulation) of RBC-derived NO stimulated by application of shear stress. Blood samples and arterial vessel segments were obtained from Wistar rats; RBC suspensions were adjusted to a hematocrit of 0.1 l/l using Krebs solution. In order to apply shear stress to the RBC suspensions they were…continuously flowed through a small-bore glass tube for 20 minutes at a wall shear stress of 2 Pa. The RBC suspensions were then perfused through endothelium denuded small mesenteric arteries having a diameter of ~300 μm under both high oxygen (PO2 ~130 mmHg) and hypoxic conditions. Perfusion of vessel segments with sheared RBC suspensions caused a significant dilation response under hypoxic conditions but not at high oxygen levels. Incubation of RBC suspensions with the non-specific NOS inhibitor L-NAME (10−3 M) prior to shear stress application abolished this dilation response. Our results indicate that NO released from RBC due to shear stress activation of NOS results in vasodilation of vessel segments under hypoxic conditions, and strongly suggest that NO originating from RBC may have a functional role in local blood flow regulation.
Keywords: Erythrocyte NOS, mechanical stimulation, NOS activation, blood flow regulation
Abstract: Background: Radiation-induced wound healing complications represent an important clinical problem. Microvascular compromise is an important component of its pathogenesis and the microvascular endothelial cell is the key representative affected at the cellular level. Material and Methods: Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC) were cultured and irradiated with doses of 2 to 12 Gy. Cell density was determined 48 h after radiation using a semi-automated cell counting system. Levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in the supernatants of HDMEC were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked…immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Non irradiated HDMEC were used as controls. Results: Cell density was significantly impaired in irradiated cells compared to non irradiated controls. Radiation resulted in significant elevation of levels of IL-6, FGF, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in the supernatants of HDMEC in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion: The inflammatory response observed clinically after radiation seems to correlate with elevated expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules by microvascula endothelial cells. The model of HDMEC documents the impairment of microcirculation. These in vitro changes may enhance our understanding of the pathomechanisms leading to radiation-induced vasculitis and associated wound healing problems.
Abstract: It has been recently hypothesized that peripheral microvascular dysfunction may contribute to atherosclerotic damage (AD) in diabetic patients. In order to test this hypothesis, we assessed forearm skin post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia (skin-PORH), an index of peripheral microvascular function, using laser-Doppler flowmetry, in 40 type 1 diabetes patients (T1D-pts), aged 49 ± 11 years, with no known cardiovascular complications, and in 50 age and sex-matched healthy control subjects (CS). T1D-pts also underwent carotid arteries ultrasound scanning (Ca-US) and ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement. An arbitrary index of AD (AD-index), ranging from “0” (normal ABI, normal Ca-US) to “3” (abnormal ABI, one or…more plaques at the Ca-US), was determined in T1D-pts. Linear and multiple regression analyses were performed to identify independent predictors of AD in T1D-pts. T1D-pts had a lower skin-PORH compared with CS (p = 0.015). In T1D-pts AD-index resulted to be negatively related with skin-PORH (R = 0.44; p < 0.005) or deep-breathing test (DBT) (R = 0.53; p < 0.0005), and positively related with systolic arterial pressure (R = 0.31; p < 0.05), microalbuminuria (R = 0.46; p < 0.005), patients' age (R = 0.51; p < 0.001) and diabetes duration (R = 0.39; p < 0.05). At the multiple regression analysis skin-PORH (R = 0.36; p < 0.005), patients' age R = 0.24; p < 0.05) and DBT (R = 0.4 – p < 0.005) resulted to be independent predictors of AD-index in T1D-pts. These preliminary findings support the hypothesis that peripheral microvascular dysfunction may contribute to AD in T1D-pts.
Keywords: Microvascular dysfunction, type 1 diabetes, atherosclerosis, skin post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia, laser-Doppler flowmetry, carotid intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index
Abstract: We aimed to test two hypotheses: 1) isolated small veins develop substantial myogenic tone in response to elevation of intraluminal pressure, 2) H2 O2 contributes to the mediation of myogenic response via activation of arachidonic acid (AA) cascade and release constrictor prostaglandins. METHODS: Small veins were isolated from gracilis muscle of male rats, then cannulated. Changes of diameter to increases in intraluminal pressure, H2 O2 and arachidonic acid in the presence and absence of various inhibitors were measured by videomicroscope and microangiometer. At the end of experiments the passive diameter were obtained in Ca2+ -free PSS solution. RESULTS:…Isolated rat gracilis muscle small veins developed a substantial myogenic tone in response to increases in intraluminal pressure (1–12 mmHg). Calculated maximum myogenic tone was 70 ± 5% at 10 mmHg. Presence of catalase or indomethacin or SQ 29,548 reduced significantly the pressure-induced myogenic response. Also, H2 O2 (10−9 –10−5 M) and arachidonic acid (10−7 –10−4 M) elicited concentration dependent constrictions, which were inhibited by the presence of indomethacin or SQ 29,548. CONCLUSION: We propose that both myogenic response and pressure-induced release of H2 O2 play important roles in regulating the vasomotor function of venules both in physiological and pathological conditions.
Abstract: An imbalance between oxidative processes and antioxidant systems has been widely demonstrated in chronic kidney diseases (CKD). In this study we enrolled 26 healthy subjects, 27 patients with CKD on conservative treatment (CT-CKD) with various degrees of renal failure, and 31 CKD subjects in haemodialysis treatment (HD-CKD), evaluated before and after a standard haemodialysis session. In each group we measured protein carbonyl groups (PC) as an index of protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and two plasma markers of leukocyte activation, elastase and myeloperoxidase (MPO). In CT-CKD subjects the PC level was significantly higher than in normal controls, and it was…negatively correlated with creatinine clearance. In HD-CKD patients the PC concentration was significantly increased also in comparison with CT-CKD. An increase in TBARS was present both in CT-CKD and in HD-CKD patients, but in HD-CKD patients TBARS were lower than in CT-CKD. Elastase was increased in both CKD groups, while MPO was not different among control and patient groups. In HD-CKD patients the HD session was followed by a further increase in PC, as well as by an increase in elastase and MPO, whereas TBARS did not change. Protein oxidation accelerates the glycation processes and seems to be connected with the chronic inflammatory state detectable in renal failure, although we did not observe any significant correlation between PC level and leukocyte activation markers.
Abstract: This study was aimed to assess the in vivo geometric and functional characteristics of lean Zucker (ZL) and obese Zucker rat (ZO) pial microvascular networks and to evaluate the vascular responses to cerebral hypoperfusion-reperfusion. Rat pial microcirculation was observed by fluorescence microscopy through a closed cranial window. Bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) lasted 30 min and reperfusion 60 min. Arterioles were classified according to Strahler's ordering scheme. Arteriolar diameter was determined by computer assisted-method as well as permeability increase, leukocyte adhesion and perfused capillary length. Neuronal damage was evaluated by TTC staining. ZO rats did not show order 5…vessels; ZO pial arterioles showed high asymmetry in the largest vessels and reduced number of branchings compared with those detected in ZL and Wistar rats. BCCAO and reperfusion caused more severe microvascular damages in ZO compared with ZL and Wistar rats. Vascular responses to acetylcholine and papaverine in ZO rats were significantly reduced compared with Wistar and ZL rats under baseline condition and at the end of reperfusion. Moreover, ZO rats showed more pronounced lesion in the cortex and striatum. Obesity and hyperglycemia could increase vascular remodeling in cerebral networks, with elevated risk of adverse outcome after brain hypoperfusion-reperfusion.
Keywords: Zucker rats, hyperglycemia, bilateral common carotid artery occlusion-reperfusion, pial microcirculation geometric remodeling, vascular and neuronal damage