Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 5, issue 6
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: The author introduced in 1960 the concept that the blood vessel and the circulating blood constitute an entity, which in 1981 he named the “vessel-blood organ”. Hemorheology can thus also be defined as the rheology of the vessel-blood organ. Clinical hemorheology deals with the clinical manifestations in disturbances, pathological conditions and disease processes of the vessel-blood organ, their diagnosis, therapy and prevention. Although it is not generally appreciated, certain fields of clinical hemorheology go back to the recorded history of ancient peoples, when disease processes of the vessel-blood organ were first recognized. The author gives a historical survey of pathologic…manifestations pertaining to clinical hemorheology from antiquity to present day medicine. He found that Leonardo da Vinci in his text to his anatomical drawings was keenly aware of the continuous destruction and regeneration of blood. Hitherto unknown in the literature of the microcirculation, Copley discovered also that Leonardo was the first to recognize the existence of capillary blood vessels, named “vene chapillari”. Leonardo used the word “vene” to mean vein or vessel. Hemorheology was extended by the author to include the rheology of tissue fluids, the interstitial spaces, parenchymal cell membranes, lymph, lymph channels and its walls. For better identification of this field, it is named “parahemorheology”. Modern parahemorheology is discussed with regard to “structured flow”, electro-biorheology, piezoelectric effect, streaming potential caused by the flow of tissue fluid and the possibility of electromagnetic fields originating in the subject. Such small “auto-electro-magnetic fields”, if measurable, might contribute significantly to clinical parahemorheology. An outlook into the future development of medicine, in which clinical hemorheology plays a dominant role, is attempted. It is mainly derived from personal insights or reflections. They include some of the author’s experimental findings, his concepts or theories projected into the future of clinical hemorheology. The increasing significance of clinical hemorheology in the practice of medicine is stressed on the basis of contemporary findings.
Keywords: auto-electro magnetic field, biorheology, blood-letting, “Cohnheim compaction phenomenon”, cupping, electric potential, electro-biorheology, Robin Fåhraeus, fibrin, fibrinogenin, hemorheology, history of medicine, Leonardo da Vinci, modern medicine, parahemorheology, phlebotomy, piezoelectric effect, Jean-Léonard-Marie Poiseuille, “Poiseuille velocity effect”, Renaissance medicine, streaming potential, structured flow, tissue fluid, transcapillary transport, vessel-blood organ, “Witte inner circulation”
Abstract: The red blood cell membrane is a complex medium with rheological characteristics that are dependent on a large number of parameters. These properties are connected with interaction phenomena between the red blood cell components (cytoskeleton, membrane lipids, etc.) which, when understood, make it easier to perceive certain biological phenomena. Several investigation techniques are available for studying membrane rheological properties at the molecular level (molecular emission spectroscopy, ESR, NMR, etc.). Among the most widely applied methods, spectroscopic techniques have been the subject of a large number of studies, because they are easy to apply and are highly sensitive. After a brief…reminder of theoretical and methodological aspects, the authors consider the clinical applications of these methods to the red blood cells.
Keywords: Red blood cell, Molecular rheology, Membrane fluidity, Electron spin resonance, Fluorescence polarization
Abstract: The ability to obtain measurements of arterial velocity profiles non-invasively in man coupled with advances in the understanding of arterial haemodynamics and arterial wall transport has increased interest in the interaction of blood flow with the arterial wall and in the association of arterial haemodynamics and arterial disease.
Abstract: This lecture is concerned mainly with questions about how haemodynamic conditions in atherosclerotic arteries affect arriving platelets that aggregate there and about the chemical agents responsible for making the platelets reactive. The effects of haemodynamic conditions and the agents are known mainly from in vitro experiments in which aggregation can be quantitatively correlated with blood flow and bioch6mical effects by simple and reproducible methods; the relevance to the more complicated situations in haemostasis and thrombosis is uncertain. It is difficult to devise quantitative in vivo methods, mainly because of the rapidity with which platelets adhere and aggregate in…diseased or damaged blood vessels. Hypotheses for explaining in vivo platelet aggregation in biochemical terms must take the haemodynamic situation into account.
Abstract: Blood rheology is “overtly abnormal” in various haematological diseases classically designated as “hyperviscosity states”; these disorders are rare and can be easily diagnosed. Much more common are diseases with “covertly abnormal” blood rheology, in which the rheological abnormality is present as an epiphenomenon to a vascular disorder. In diseases such as retinal arterial occlusion and secondary RAYNAUD phenomenon (early manifestations of systemic sclerosis) there is evidence of “abnormal blood thixotropy” i.e. a pathological tendency of the blood to loose its fluidity when subjected to low shear stresses. This tendency is assumed to perpetuate a low flow state caused by other…haemodynamic abnormalities. Isovolaemic haemodilution and plasmapheresis were employed with clinical success in retinal artery occlusion and secondary Raynaud phenomenon, respectively. The two forms of “antithixotropic” therapy were accompanied by clearly lowered blood thixotropy, clinical improvement and augmented blood flow.
Abstract: The ‘secret’ D.O.D. Mission on flight STS 51–C also carried nearly 100 kg of automated instrumentation of the Australian experiment on aggregation of red cells (“ARC”). The automated Slit-Capillary Photo Viscometer contained blood samples from subjects with history of coronary heart disease, cancer of the colon, insulin-dependent diabetes, etc., as well as normals. The experiment ran for nine hours, according to the program of its microcomputers. When shuttle landed and instrumentation recovered and opened in the presence of NASA quality control officers, it was obvious that experiment was a success. Tentative and preliminary results can be summarized as follows: red…cells did not change shape under zero gravity; red cells do aggregate under zero gravity, although the size of aggregates is smaller than on the ground; the morphology of aggregates of red cells appears to be of rouleaux type under zero gravity, notwithstanding the fact that pathological blood was used. These results will have to be confirmed in the future flights. The background and history of development of the project are described, and put into context of our general haemorheological studies.
Keywords: aggregation of red cells, morphology of aggregation, slit-capillary photo-viscometer, NASA space shuttle, zero gravity experiments, rouleaux, clumps and sludges, “swarms” of red cells