Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 5, issue 3
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: Plasma proteins have a multiform effect on blood rheology and circulation. I. Plasma viscosity increases as the concentration or molecular weight of protein increases. When high molecular weight proteins are present, non-Newtonian rheology is evident. II. Rigidity/fluidity of the red cell is influenced by the ratio of the internal viscosity of the red cell to the viscosity of plasma; and may be affected by adsorption of proteins onto the red cell membrane. III. Aggregation of red cells greatly increases in the presence of paraproteins, and the morphology of aggregates may be affected by protein composition. IV. Viscosity of whole blood…is affected by proteins via the blood subphases; actual determination of blood viscosity can be affected by flow instability which is also related to the proteins present. V. Thrombus formation is affected by plasma proteins through interference with platelet aggregation and polymerization of fibrinogen. VI. Coating of blood vessels by proteins (especially fibrinogen/fibrin) might influence flow rate. VII. Control of hyperviscosity can be carried out by plasmapheresis, etc.
Keywords: plasma viscosity, blood viscosity, rigidity of red cell, paraproteins, aggregation of red cells, flow instability, thrombus formation, fibrinogen/fibrin, hyperviscosity
Abstract: Rheological and morphological measurements are performed on blood stored in liquid state as packed cells in CPD anticoagulant solution. Rheological data are obtained from viscometric measurements and processed by means of Quemada’s model of blood viscometry. Morphological data are obtained from electron microscopy and by cells counting. A relationship between a parameter of Quemada’s law and rate of functional cells is established and experimentaly confirmed. As a result we show that viscometry is able to give precise information on the quality of stored blood.
Keywords: blood storage, viscometry, microscopy, rheological model
Abstract: Red blood cells (RBC) deformability can be measured by a variety of methods of which bulk filtration through polycarbonate membranes is the most widely used. The aim of this paper is here to compare this last and viscometry on stored blood samples and on blood samples artificially modified by an echinocytic agent. (i) viscometric experiments are performed with a servo-controlled Couette apparatus with coaxial cylinders. Viscometric data are analysed by means of Quemada’s rheological model from which is obtained an index of deformability Dv . (ii) filtration measurements are made using an initial flow-rate gravity filtration instrument (Hanss’…hemorheometer). The results are given in term of Hanss’ index Df . Indices of deformability Dv and Df are compared and interpreted according to morphological RBC changes controlled under microscope. We found: - No correlation between Df and Dv for stored blood. - An exponential correlation between Df and Dv when normal and artificially modified RBC are used.
Abstract: The orientation rate of flowing erythrocytes was studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy as a function of time on blood samples stored either in the classical anticoagulant solution CPD or in the new SAG resuspension medium. The maximum orientation rate decreases quickly and the critical shear rate increases strongly in CPD. These parameters are much more stable in SAG. These results indicate that the red blood cell deformability and rheological properties are well better preserved with the SAG storage procedure.
Abstract: In order to investigate the parameters governing plasma separation by a microporous membrane, plasma filtration rates were measured in two single-channel filter press devices of 170 and 600 cm2 membrane area with adjustable blood film thickness. The filtration rate reaches a maximum at a mean transmembrane pressure of 70 to 100 mm Hg. The maximum filtration rate is very well correlated with the inlet wall shear rate γw as γw 0.76 . The maximum filtration rate is also found to decrease with increasing platelet concentration cp as ℓn (1/cp ). These observations are consistant with the assumption…that the plasma filtration rate is limited by platelet concentration polarization taking into account enhancement of platelet diffusivity by red blood cell motion. At low platelet concentrations the filtration rate decreases linearly with increasing hematocrit. The resulting model is used to predict the maximum filtration rates as a function of geometrical parameters of the filters.
Abstract: In alcoholic liver disease patients, characteristic changes in erythrocyte membrane lipid composition are reported. Membrane cholesterol and cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio are increased compared to controls. Distribution of palmitic acid (C16:0 saturated) and polyunsaturated linoleic (C18:2 n-6) and arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) in the membrane phospholipids is abnormal in alcoholic liver disease. Furthermore positive correlations between this abnormal fatty acid distribution and red cell filterability is found. We conclude that membrane filterability could be. influenced either by cholesterol content or the lenght and degree of unsaturation or its fatty acid composition.