Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 4, issue 5
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: Studies were carried out to determine the efficacy and validity of utili zing flow cytometric technics (Coulter principle) for quantitatively assessing the tendency for erythrocytes to aggregate in suspension. Dextran, a neutral polymer, was used at a variety of concentrations as a model aggregating agent. The results, expressed in terms of an aggregation value (AW), were found to correlate well with those obtained by low shear viscometric technics in which the relative apparent viscosity ratio, R, was previously shown to be a quantitative and reproducible index of cellular aggregation. These results, taken together with the recently shown correlation of the…AW with pathophysiological circulatory disorders such as coronary artery disease, as well as the simplicity of the methods described, provide a sound basis for utilizing flow cytometry in diagnostic screening programs.
Abstract: The red blood cells (RBC) of uncontrolled insulin dependent diabetics are poorly deformable and this abnormality is rapidly corrected at least partially by strict normoglycaemia. Its lipid component plays a major role in the RBC membrane fluidity. Therefore we have compared the RBC membrane content in cholesterol, phospholipid and various fatty acids of 19 uncontrolled insulin dependent diabetics before and after 24 hours of normoglycaemia induced by an artificial pancreas, and of 13 age matched controls. Diabetic RBC membranes contained significantly more cholesterol, less phospholipid, had higher cholesterol-phospholipid ratio, had lower relative content in unsaturated fatty acids (C 18:2 n-6…; C 20:3 n-6 ; C 20:4 n-6) higher content in saturated fatty acids (C 16:0 ; C 18:0) than the normal ones. All these abnormalities were significantly corrected after 24 hours of insulin induced normoglycaemia.
Abstract: The erythrocytes from twenty prosthetic cardiac valve recipients were studied for cellular deform ability (P0 ) and levels of intracellular calcium. Deformability was measured by a filtration method and calcium content was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Erythrocyte rigidity and levels of calcium were significantly increased compared to control subjects (p < 0.01). Prosthetic valve patients were divided into two groups on the basis of clinically significant hemolysis (cellular morphology and values of hematocrit and serum lactate dehydrogenase). Valve recipients with evidence of significant hemolysis had more rigid erythrocytes and higher intracellular calcium levels than patients without signs of extensive…erythrocyte destruction. The deformability indicator P0 correlated closely with values of the patients’ serum lactate dehydrogenase (p < 0.01), hematocrit (p < 0.00l) and erythrocyte intracellular calcium (p < 0.001). These data suggest a causal role for loss of cellular deformability and increased intracellular calcium in the shortened erythrocyte life span in patients with prosthetic cardiac valves.
Keywords: Red cell calcium, erythrocyte deform ability, heart valves
Abstract: Erythrocyte deformability in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) was determined by nuclepore filtration of red cells. The mean value of the deformability parameter, P0 , which inversely correlates with deformability, was elevated for a group of 32 patients with CRF. Patients receiving chronic hemodialysis had less deformable red cells than patients undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis. The mean value of calcium content of erythrocytes, determined by atomic adsorption spectrometry, was significantly greater than normal in a group of 18 patients who were studied. Calcium content was generally greater in red ce11s of patients treated with hemodialysis than those with…peritoneal dialysis. No correlation was found between either red ce11 deformability or calcium content with morphologic changes of erythrocytes, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration of red cells, or values of the patients’ serum urea nitrogen, calcium or creatinine. The anemia of CRF is characterized by decreased deformability of red cells associated with increased calcium content.
Keywords: Renal failure, erythocyte deformability, red cell calcium
Abstract: An in vitro metabolic stress model has been developed to simulate the adverse rheological effect on erythrocyte deformability of regional ischaemia in patients with vascular disease. Exposure to the combination of acidosis (pH 6.9), hypoxia (pO2 2.0–2.7 kPa), and hyperosmolality (402 mmol/Kg) for 10 and 90 minutes caused a 50% and 99% decrease respectively in erythrocyte filtration through 5µm diameter pores (initial flow rate method). Erythrocytes from patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease were similarly affected to those from healthy individuals and the loss of filterability, which was reversible, was not prevented by 5 mmol/l oxpentifylline.
Abstract: The smallest amount of stiff red cells which impairs the filterability of a whole blood sample is unknown. In order to answer such a question, an investigation was carried out on whole blood and red cell suspensions in plasma (Hct 0.10). A different amount of stiff red cells was added to these samples. The cells were rigidified by keeping the blood in thermostat at 37°C for 24–32 hours. The amount of incubated blood added to native blood and erythrocyte suspension was 10%, 5%, and 2.5%, respectively. Blood viscosity, hematological parameters and erythrocyte filtration were influenced by different amounts of stiffened…red cells. When a blood sample containing 2.5 rigid cells per hundred was compared to a native blood sample, all hemorheological tests were unchanged except for erythrocyte filtration. This showed a significant delay in filtration times and a significant change of CFI. The filtering procedure appears to be the most sensitive test to reveal the presence of some stiff erythrocytes, but it is unable to show whether the delay in filtration rate is determined by a reduction of the flexibility of few, many, or all red cells in a blood sample.
Abstract: Blood from 30 leukemic patients, 20 anemic and 15 healthy subjects was studied to examine the effect of leukocytes and blast cells on blood viscosity and on filtration procedure. Buffy coat was removed in 24 blood samples from leukemic patients and in 15 from healthy subjects. Then the hematological and hemorheological tests were repeated. The mean levels of blood viscosity at shear rates 23 and 230 sec−l were not high in the 30 leukemic patients. Ten patients with hyperleukocytic leukemia had mean levels of blood viscosity not significantly higher than those of 20 anemic patients with similar cytocrit, no…abnormal plasma proteins, and leukocyte count in normal range. Moreover, the removal of buffy coat did not affect blood viscosity, when the cytocrit was kept constant. The findings point out that the large increase in blood viscosity is. an uncommon event in leukemia. In contrast, the results of the filtration procedure showed a severe impairment of blood filterability, due to both the high concentration of leukocytes and the presence of blast cells. The latter influences the test even if in a small amount. The importance of whole blood filtration findings is stressed for the early detection of tissue malperfusion in leukemia.