Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 16, issue 6
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: The effects of coronary angiography with iohexol upon vein blood rheology were studied before, immediately after and one month after angiography. Haematocrit decreased from 40.5% to 39.0% immediately after angiography (p < 0.01). When this was compensated for by in vitro standardisation of sample haematocrits to 45% there was a blood viscosity increase by 10.9 – 15.0%, at the four studied shear rates 0.8 s−1 , 2.3 s−1 , 19.6 s−1 , and 40.0 s−1 (p < 0.05 – p < 0.01). In unadjusted samples, i.e. at the patients natural haematocrits, there was only a slight and statistically non-significant…blood viscosity increase. Plasma viscosity decreased immediately after angiography, and was even lower 1 month after angiography. The haematocrit reduction correlated significantly with the iohexol doses (correlation coefficient −0.852, p < 0.001), whereas no significant correlation was found between the contrast volumes and the alterations of blood and plasma viscosity. Except for plasma viscosity, there were no significant differences when the values before angiography and one month later were compared.
Abstract: The Rheodyn SSD is an automated laser diffractometer for rapid measurement of red blood cell (RBC) deformability in small quantities of blood. RBC are suspended in a viscous medium and placed between a rotating and a stationary disk. Defined shear stresses of 0.3 to 60 Pa force the RBC to deform to ellipsoids, causing elliptical diffraction pattern of a laser beam passing through the RBC suspension. At shear stresses of 3 to 60 Pa, coefficient of variation was <3% for repeated measurements of the same blood sample. RBC deformation was not affected by the anticoagulant (no anticoagulant, heparin, EDTA, or…citrate), the sample size (10 to 50 μl of blood) and washing of RBC. The results show that the Rheodyn SSD is a reproducible tool to study RBC deformability in small blood samples.
Abstract: Instruments for measurement of red blood cell deformability (RBC) should be sensitive to detect both a moderate reduction in cellular deformabiltiy of the entire RBC population and of a subpopulation of rigid RBC. The sensitivity of the laser diffractometer Rheodyn SSD was tested by treatment of normal RBC with increasing concentrations of glutaraldehyde, mixing of normal RBC with increasing percentages of rigid RBC, and by density separation of normal RBC. Maximum RBC elongation (at a high shear stress of 60 Pa) decreased from 60 to 8 when increasing the glutaraldehyde concentration from 0 to 0.004%. For every 10% of rigid…RBC, mean RBC elongation decreased by about 10%. Density-separated RBC showed a typical deformation behavior: “top” cells were better deformable than “bottom” cells over the whole range of applied shear stresses. The results show that the Rheodyn SSD is a sensitive tool to detect abnormal RBC deformability.
Abstract: The sensitivity of the Cell Transit Analyzer (CTA) to the alterations of red blood cell (RBC) deformability and related factors was investigated. Using 5 μm pore size filters the CTA was found to be more sensitive to slight glutaraldehyde-induced decreases of deformability for rat RBC in comparison with larger human RBC. However, using 3 μm pore size filters decreased the sensitivity of measurements to mechanical changes of rat RBC, implying that a lower cel/pore size ratio might provide better sensitivity. Exclusion of a subpopulation of the most rigid cells, which are not able to pass through the pores might be…involved. Measurements using RBC suspensions with various cell counts revealed that RBC concentration in the suspension being filtered was an important determinant of CTA sensitivity, especially for measurements on human RBC using 5 μm pore size filters. The insensitivity of CTA to slight changes in deformability might, in part, be related to the higher probability of longer pulses being rejected as a result of coincidence. Either decreasing the cel/pore size ratio or limiting the cell count in the suspensions being filtered might optimize the sensitivity of the CTA to slight degrees of mechanical alterations in human RBC.
Keywords: Cell Transit Analyzer, red blood cell deformability, sensitivity, glutaraldehyde
Abstract: The aim of this study is to compare the values of hematologic and hemorheologic parameters in preclinic alcoholists, i.e. without or with limited liver damage (moderate steatosis in 38% of the cases), in basal conditions and after alcohol withdrawal for 30 days. In 21 alcoholists whole blood viscosity (WBV), whole blood filtration total time (TT), hematologic and biochemical blood tests were studied. The results show in basal condition an increase in WBV, TT and mean cell volume (MCV). After the period of abstention from alcohol, WBV significantly decreased (P<0.025), TT became shorter (P<0.025), MCV significantly reduced (P<0.025). The abnormalities…of hemorheologic parameters in these alcoholists may be attributable to the effect of alcohol itself, because in these subjects neither usual hemorheological risk factors nor chronic liver disease have been demonstrated and improvement of hemorheologic parameters appear after a period of alcohol abstention for 30 days without any medical treatment.
Abstract: Longitudinal physiologic changes in blood viscosity parameters were studied in 9 women with uneventful pregnancies. After an initial decrease in blood viscosity, an increase towards the end of pregnancy was found. The oxygen-transport capacity remained quite constant during pregnancy with a small rise at gestational week 32. A cross-sectional study was performed in 102 pregnant women at 28 weeks gestation. Chronic dietary sodium restriction did not influence blood viscosity significantly. No significant relationships were found between hemorheologic parameters and parity, prematurity and fetal growth retardation. Higher blood viscosity was found in women who became hypertensive in pregnancy, even…before the onset of the disease.
Abstract: The erythrocyte membrane alterations were studied in nineteen beta-thalassemia intermedia patients. Solubilized erythrocyte membrane proteins were gel-filtered and high-molecular-weight aggregates were isolated and analyzed for denatured hemoglobin derivatives. All the patients presented increased amounts of membrane-bound heme, hemichromes and immunoglobulins, together with aggregation and oxidation of band 3. The basal activity of the erythrocyte pentose-monophosphate-pathway was normal, whereas a lower susceptibility to in vitro methylene blue stimulation was observed. In five randomly-selected patients, whole blood viscosity resulted approximately normal, while filterability was significantly lower, suggesting a decrease in red blood cells deformability. A relation between hemichrome-induced band 3 aggregation and…rheologic modifications of red blood cells was observed. Hemichrome binding to band 3 seems likely to be an important event leading to membrane damages and, hence, responsible for erythrocytes removal from blood circulation by the phagocytic system. Density gradient separation of erythrocyte subpopulation was performed in a selected case and the same biochemical, redox status and rheologic parameters were determined. The oldest cells have no detectable hemichromes and their deformability is better than that of cells containing a relevant amount of hemichromes.