Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 24, issue 1
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Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: Early detection of skull base invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is crucial for correct staging, assessing treatment response and contouring the tumor target in radiotherapy planning, as well as improving the patient's prognosis. To compare the diagnostic efficacy of single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) for the detection of skull base invasion in NPC. Sixty untreated patients with histologically proven NPC underwent SPECT/CT imaging, contrast-enhanced MRI and CT. Of the 60 patients, 30 had skull base invasion confirmed by the final results of contrast-enhanced MRI, CT and six-month follow-up imaging…(MRI and CT). The diagnostic efficacy of the three imaging modalities in detecting skull base invasion was evaluated. The rates of positive findings of skull base invasion for SPECT/CT, MRI and CT were 53.3%, 48.3% and 33.3%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 93.3%, 86.7% and 90.0% for SPECT/CT fusion imaging, 96.7%, 100.0% and 98.3% for contrast-enhanced MRI, and 66.7%, 100.0% and 83.3% for contrast-enhanced CT. MRI showed the best performance for the diagnosis of skull base invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, followed closely by SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT had poorer specificity than that of both MRI and CT, while CT had the lowest sensitivity.
Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission computed tomography, computerized tomography, skull base invasion
Abstract: This paper proposes a method to segment the cytoplasm in cervical cell images using graph cut-based algorithm. First, the A* channel in CIE LAB color space is extracted for contrast enhancement. Then, in order to effectively extract cytoplasm boundaries when image histograms present non-bimodal distribution, Otsu multiple thresholding is performed on the contrast enhanced image to generate initial segments, based on which the segments are refined by the multi-way graph cut method. We use 21 cervical cell images with non-ideal imaging condition to evaluate cytoplasm segmentation performance. The proposed method achieved a 93% accuracy which outperformed state-of-the-art works.
Abstract: This study investigated the changes of cerebral activation and lateralization due to the cognition of three driving speeds in comparison to a reference driving speed using functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI. A driving video as a visual stimulation source was recorded with four different driving speeds in a real driving situation. The experiment consisted of three blocks and each block included a one-minute control phase and a one-minute stimulation phase. The activation area and the lateralization index were analyzed by subtracting high speed data from low speed data. Such areas as occipital, parietal and frontal lobes, which is related to…visual cognition, high order visual and spatial attention (or vigilance), were activated due to the cognition of various driving speed differences. As the driving speed difference increased, the activation area increased in the areas related to spatial attention (or vigilance), such as the frontal lobe, however, changes of neuronal activation in the occipital and parietal lobes were inconsistent. As the driving speed difference increased, the absolute value of cerebral lateralization decreased. These results may provide some basic data for elucidating the brain-function mechanism related to the cognition of a various driving speed difference based on a realistic visual stimulation.
Abstract: This study was to investigate the effect of Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharides (SFPS-B2) on the proliferation and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901. Cells were treated with different concentrations of SFPS-B2. MTT and flow cytometry (FCM) assays were performed to evaluate the effect of SFPS-B2 on the cell growth and apoptosis. Inverted fluorescent microscope was used to observe cell morphology. Laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) was used to analyze intracellular calcium ion concentration, mitochondrion permeability transition pore (MPTP) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Spectrophotometer was applied to quantify the activity of Caspase-9 and Caspase-3. FCM was used to determine…the expressions of Bcl-2, Bax and cytochrome C. It was shown that SFPS-B2 inhibited the growth of SGC-7901. After the treatment for 72 h, the cell apoptosis morphology was obvious, which showed that cell protuberance and apoptotic body appeared, and the cytoplasm was concentrated; the apoptotic peak appeared and the apoptotic rate increased in a dose-dependent manner. After the treatment for 24 h, SFPS-B2 activated intracellular MPTP and decreased MMP. It also increased the activity of Caspase-9 and Caspase-3, down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and up-regulated the expression of Bax, induced the release of Cyt-C. SFPS-B2 induced SGC-7901 apoptosis through a mitochondrial-mediated pathway, suggesting it may be an agent for cancer treatment.
Keywords: Sargassum fusiforme, polysaccharide, human gastric cancer, apoptosis, mitochondria
Abstract: In order to reduce the motion artifact caused by the patient in cerebral DSA images, a non-rigid registration method based on stretching transformation is presented in this paper. Unlike other traditional methods, it does not need bilinear interpolation which is rather time-consuming and even produce ‘originally non-existent gray value’. By this method, the mask image is rasterized to generate appropriate control points. The Energy of Histogram of Differences criterion is adopted as similarity measurement, and the Powell algorithm is utilized for acceleration. A forward stretching transformation is used to complete motion estimation and an inverse stretching transformation to generate target…image by pixel mapping strategy. This method is effective to maintain the topological relationships of the gray value before and after the image deformation. The mask image remains clear and accurate contours, and the quality of the subtraction image after the registration is favorable. This method can provide support for clinical treatment and diagnosis of cerebral disease.
Keywords: Digital subtraction angiography, non-rigid registration, stretching transformation, pixel mapping
Abstract: In this paper, a thermal computed tomography (TCT) for structural reconstruction of optical-thin biological tissues is proposed, which is based on a radiation balance between adjacent infinitesimals. A theoretical analysis has been carried out and several influential factors have been analyzed for the reconstructions of a physical model in numerical simulations. The simulation results give a criterion of how to choose an appropriate set of parameters to reconstruct biological tissues with the TCT. Besides, a TCT system was established and a validation experiment was carried out. The studies of both numerical simulations and experiments have verified the feasibility of the…proposed TCT and give a valuable reference for the future applications of TCT in biology.
Abstract: This paper explores mouse kidney imaging with diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) and inline outline X-ray imaging (IOXI) technology, and evaluates latent value of kidney imaging with phase contrast imaging technology. In our experiment, spatial resolution and tissue contrast serve as element evaluation and comparison. Images obtained from our experiment exhibit clearly observable contrasts and high resolution, suggesting X-RAY and IOXO are suitable for capturing kidney images. Also, further comparison shows IOXO has a better performance than DEI in capturing microstructures.
Abstract: We assessed the role of F-18 FDG PET/CT in evaluating isolated extra-axillary lymph node recurrences in postoperative breast cancer patients and its prognostic value on clinical outcome. We reviewed PET/CT scans of postoperative breast cancer patients performed at our institution between July 2003 and February 2012. We recorded PET/CT findings, clinicopathologic variables and treatment modalities. We analyzed metabolic parameters from PET/CT and clinicopathologic variables with respect to progression free survival (PFS). A total of 3561 PET/CT scans were performed in 1906 postoperative breast cancer patients with a median interval of 43 month from curative surgery. Fifty seven patients (2.99%) demonstrated…isolated extra-axillary nodal recurrences (n=85) on PET/CT (internal mammary node recurrences in 28, supraclavicular 24, infraclavicular 4, interpectoral 8, cervical 12, and mediastinal 9).The median SUVmax was 7.8 (range, 1.8~19.0), and the median node size was 15 mm (range, 6~38 mm). All recurrences were nonpalpable. Based on PET/CT findings, 53 out of 57 patients with extra-axillary node recurrences underwent subsequent chemotherapy/radiation therapy. The estimated 3-year PFS rate was 48.6%. Cutoff points of SUVmax 2.7 and size 14 mm were the best discriminative values for predicting clinical outcome. SUVmax and size of extra-axillary nodal recurrences were significantly correlated to PFS on univariate and multivariate analyses (p<0.001 and p=0.019, respectively).
Keywords: Breast cancer, extra-axillary lymph node, recurrence, PET/CT, prognosis
Abstract: A sample entropy (SampEn)-based emotion recognition approach was presented. The SampEn results of notable EEG channels screened by K-S test were fed to the support vector machine (SVM)-weight classifier for training, after which it was applied to two emotion recognition tasks. One is to distinguish positive and negative emotion with high arousal and the other genitive emotion with different arousal status. Results showed that channels related to emotions were mostly located on the prefrontal region, i.e., F3, CP5, FP2, FZ, and FC2. And they were applied to form the input vectors of SVM-weight classifier. The accuracies of the present algorithm…for the two tasks were 80.43% and 79.11%, respectively indicated by the leave-one-person-out validation procedure, demonstrating that the present algorithm had a reasonable generalization capability.
Abstract: Veterinary ultrasound has been used in a large number of animal husbandry-related circumstances while many corresponding applications also call for the use of ultrasound in human patients. However, veterinary ultrasound images are affected by speckle, an interference pattern that can reduce the quality and contrast of ultrasound images. In this paper, a filter-based receive-side spatial compounding technique for veterinary ultrasound B-Mode imaging is used to create a compounded veterinary B-Mode image based on multiple looks. In particular, filtering in the lateral direction has been proved to be able to preserve the axial information in the sub-bands and to create decorrelation…between sub-bands at the expense of some lateral resolution. A new method was proposed to obtain B-Mode IQ data by special veterinary ultrasonic probe. This approach is tested on 275 in-vivo swine. The effect is accomplished in real-time veterinary ultrasonic imaging with a measurable improvement of SNRe. Meanwhile, the speckle and electronic noise in the compounded image have been greatly reduced and smoothed in the visual result.