Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is one of the most common types of glaucoma. Glaucoma is a progressive neuropathy of the optic nerve with characteristic visual area disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the correlations between rheological parameters of blood and other parameters such as: intraocular pressure, visual acuity, angular breadth of the aqueous fluid eluvium, visual area and arterial hypertension. The examined group was comprised of 54 patients with POAG. Out of this group two subgroups was separated: I subgroup of 24 patients without hypertensive and II subgroup of 30 patients with chronic hypertensive disease. The control group was comprised of 40 healthy subjects. Erythrocyte aggregation and deformability analysis were determined using LORCA. From the results we concluded that rheological disorders such as enhanced erythrocyte aggregation or significantly decreased erythrocyte deformability occur in patients with POAG. Additionally, it revealed a significant relation between the duration of hypertension and an increased erythrocyte aggregation index (r = +0.27 p < 0.005) along with decreased deformability (r = −0.37 p < 0.001), where the decrease in deformability correlated with the severity of hypertonic retinal angiopathy (r = −0.30 p < 0.05). All these disorders may result in decreased blood flow to the optic nerve, which contributes towards the development of neuropathy.