Abstract: Building a relationship, information-exchange and treatment decision making are essential elements of physician-patient communication. This review aims at answering the following questions: What are the needs that cancer patients have regarding physician-patient communication? What are the areas of physician-patient communication in which patients experience shortcomings? What implications derive for clinical practice? A literature research was conducted for the years 1990–2005 with the topics of physician-patient communication and relationship, exchange of…information and decision making. Analyses showed that cancer patients find a personal and individual relationship to their physician of vital importance for effective physician-patient communication. Patients expect medical as well as psychological support from their physicians. Individual information needs and decision making preferences of cancer patients can hardly be predicted. From the patients' perspective most shortcomings are experienced in information giving and decision making. In order to satisfy cancer patients' needs and to improve the shortcomings, physicians should use patient-centred communication techniques.
Keywords: physician-patient communication, cancer, information needs, decision making, review
Abstract: Introduction: We aimed to assess the impact of both religiosity and sense of coherence on mental health and general life satisfaction. Methods: In this study, we recruited 389 individuals from different settings (n=251 psychosomatic outpatients and n=138 healthy blood donors). The participants completed measures of exposure to psychologically traumatic events, posttraumatic symptoms, anxiety, depression, and sense of coherence. Results: We did not find any significant associations between religiosity and mental health variables…and life satisfaction. In contrast, significant highly correlations were seen between sense of coherence and anxiety (r=−0.60), depression (r=−0.59), PTSD symptomatology (r=−0.53), and life satisfaction (r=0.58). Discussion: Based on our results, sense of coherence but not religiosity may be a protective factor for mental health and well-being.
Keywords: Sense of coherence, religiosity, life satisfaction, mental health, PTSD
Abstract: The original questionnaire for assessing rehabilitational expectations and motivations (FREM-17) was first developed in 1995 within a bi-national research project. In this study the influence of motivation on rehabilitation outcomes on several diagnostic groups was investigated. The questionnaire proved useful with respect to practical and methodological aspects. It consists of 17 items and 4 dimensions ("recreation", "health", "coping with disease", "retirement". In most rehabilitational research the primary interest is not in patient…motivation. Therefore there exists a certain demand for a short questionnaire which requires little time and effort. In an own study such a short instrument was needed, and a motivation questionnaire with 8 items was developed and tested on several diagnostic groups. The short form of the questionnaire shows the same dimensionality as the 17 items questionnaire, reliability proves to be lower than that of the long version. Several indicators of patients' health perception were used as validation criteria. Analysis showed assumed correlations as known from other studies. To conclude it can be said that the short form questionnaire (FREM-8) is comparable to the long version in its properties and can be used instead of the 17 items form in given situations.
Keywords: Medical rehabilitation, motivation, questionnaire development, outcomes
Abstract: Objectives: The relevance of the social context in the study of coping with chronic illness has been increasingly recognised. Dyadic coping is the central concept within the systemic process model of coping in close relationships. To measure dyadic coping, the Questionnaire for the Assessment of Dyadic Coping (QADC) was developed. In this study, we aimed at investigating the factorial structure of a version of this questionnaire known in German as FDCT-2. Methods: We conducted a…principal components analysis. The study sample comprised N=197 persons from the general population. Results: The analysis did not replicate the original factor structure. Instead, a four-factorial solution emerged that showed rather weak properties. We developed a revised version (FDCT-25) comprising the four factors stress communication, problem-oriented dyadic coping, emotion-oriented dyadic coping, and negative dyadic coping. These revised scales showed adequate internal consistency. Conclusion: Our results question the construct validity of the QADC in its original version and underline the need to further investigate the validity of the QADC.
Keywords: Chronic illness in couples, dyadic coping, Questionnaire for the Assessment of Dyadic Coping, factor analysis