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WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The unique work of faculty-in-residence (FIRs) is premised on a substantial amount of research, which demonstrates that faculty-student engagement benefits students positively. Still, there is a dearth of literature that focuses on FIR work. In particular, there is no published research on the historical context for FIRs and no published research that provides an overarching analysis of literature germane to FIR work. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to fill these gaps in the research literature by producing a historical study of FIR work and a review of research about FIR work. METHODS: Qualitative…methods were used for this study; namely, the authors employed both historical research methods and a literature review. RESULTS: This study is the first of its kind to trace the history of FIR work and to provide an overarching analysis of the limited literature on this topic. CONCLUSIONS: By filling in the gaps in the research literature and describing the current state of FIR work, this study contributes to a research base for future, iterative studies of FIR work. This study also offers a discussion of future directions for both the research and practice of FIR work on college campuses.
Keywords: Occupation, history, faculty, college, university, residence hall
Abstract: This case study reports on a programmatic decision to require a credit-bearing course that was made by Faculty in Residence (FIR), including its implementation and results over a two-year period from 2010–2012. The focus is on FIR and on the impact of their decision upon the students enrolled in their Living Learning Communities (LLCs). The credit-bearing course was a Kinesiology Activities class taken by all seven LLCs at Boise State University. Anonymous feedback from students was obtained via end of semester surveys; results were used to improve the course. Survey feedback was analyzed to assess the value students perceived to…have gained from the course. The majority of students reported gaining value from the class. Students noted that it positively affected their time management/personal accountability, that it decreased their stress level and that it increased their awareness of the Recreational Center offerings. Some students were critical of the course, reporting little to no value or even resentment about the course requirement. The decision, implementation and improvements of the course required faculty leadership and full participation of all LLCs; perceptions of the FIR in terms of the effects of adding the required course on their LLC are reported.
Keywords: Living learning communities, faculty in residence, residential life, kinesiology, case study, housing
Abstract: Student-faculty interactions outside the classroom have long been touted as beneficial to students’ success at an institution of higher education. However, obstacles to realizing these interactions have also been well-documented. This case study profiles how student affairs administrators and faculty-in-residence overcame these obstacles to develop, implement, and assess an award-winning program for facilitating student-faculty interactions outside the classroom. Named after the Boston University (BU) mascot (Rhett the Boston terrier) and inspired by the popular online lecture series (TED Talks), Rhett Talks has met BU’s unique campus needs, facilitated potent student-faculty interactions, and demonstrated effective partnering between student affairs and academic…affairs.
Keywords: Faculty, college, university, occupation, residence hall
Abstract: An emerging promising practice in many universities has been the development of faculty-in-residence programs, in which university faculty members and their family moved into university student residences, sharing common living spaces with students. This case study is centered on two faculty-in-residence living in university residence halls. One was an assistant professor pursuing tenure while raising a young child, while the second was a tenured full professor and associate dean raising two teens. This case study offers the post-experience conclusions of these two faculty-in-residence individuals, noting the benefits and challenges each experienced while living -and working closely with these students outside…of the university classroom, all while striving for an optimal balance in managing professional and familial obligations.
Keywords: Living-learning communities, faculty-in-residence, residential life
Abstract: This paper describes the case of an after-school program, focused on providing enrichment opportunities for neighborhood youth, jointly administered through an academic division and residential community within a large urban research university. The program, originally conceived as an activity-based after-school program for middle school youth, expanded in scope in response to both community and student needs. The resident faculty fellow in this community served as a liaison between the academic division and office of residential education, helping maintain continuity and facilitating effective student leadership of the program. In this case, we detail the origins and evolution of the program, including…strategies used to resolve challenges that arose over several years of program implementation.
Keywords: Post-secondary education, faculty-in-residence, case study, civic engagement, occupational therapy
Abstract: Faculty-in-residence programs have long been touted as a successful way to provide for both intentional and casual out-of-the-classroom interactions between students and faculty. Despite research on the benefits to students and to faculty of such programs, academic commitments and lack of clarity around the role of live-in faculty has made recruiting of faculty a challenge. This case study provides an account of how McGill University, a publicly-funded, research-intensive university in Montreal, Canada, undertook the development and implementation of a new faculty-in-residence model that honored the long history of faculty living in McGill’s residences, provided structured opportunities for faculty-student engagement, and…reflected McGill’s unique residence culture.
Abstract: In a time when faculty face criticism for possible disengagement from undergraduate student learning, faculty-in-residence programs bring students and faculty together in a living-learning community. The benefits of such student-faculty interaction are known, but lesser known is how to develop those interactions. This case study provides an account of how Baylor University – a private, research university in the Southwest – underwent a paradigm shift from a Sleep-and-Eat Model of residential education to a Learning Model. The change in culture not only benefited students, but also led to the reconceptualization of professorial work for faculty in higher education.
Abstract: Despite the evidence in support of the substantial benefits that come from FIR work, there still are real barriers to promoting such programs at colleges and universities. This Sounding Board reflects on the future of FIR work given those barriers. The author encourages senior administrators to reward FIR work in their faculty review processes and to encourage collaboration between faculty and student affairs professionals. Moreover, the author recommends additional, more rigorous studies of FIR work across a range of institution-types in higher education.
Abstract: Self-care among health care providers is an important component of their ability to provide quality health care to patients. Health care institutions have programs in place for students that emphasize health and wellness, but few programs are available for faculty and staff. To address this gap and facilitate modeling health and wellness strategies for students, a New England institution that educates health care practitioners began a pilot self-care project for faculty and staff. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. The template used for this project could be used as a stepping-stone for future wellness self-care program in higher education…for faculty, staff, and students.
Keywords: Self-care for faculty and staff, interprofessional, health and wellness, higher education
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are common among office workers. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence, risks and symptoms of MSD among office workers of a Brazilian dairy company. METHODS: Fifty office workers participated in the study. The following evaluations and questionnaires were completed: Rapid Upper Limb Assessment, Strain Index, Muscle Fatigue Assessment, Nordic General Questionnaire, and Oswestry Disability Index. RESULTS: Seventy-four percent (n = 37) of the participants had MSD symptoms. The back was most commonly affected body part (81% , n = 30), followed by the upper limbs (70% , n = 26). Fifty-three percent of the…workers with low back pain had mild to moderate disability, and the risk for the hands, wrists and fingers was moderate. Changes are required to reduce the risk of MSD among the participating office workers. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of MSD symptoms was high; the back and upper limbs were most commonly affected. Data from the evaluations and questionnaires supplemented each other. The Rapid Upper Limb Assessment and Strain Index were better indicators of risk of MSD symptoms than the Muscle Fatigue Assessment. The participating office workers were exposed to moderate risk of developing MSD due to biomechanical overload and changes are required.
Keywords: Ergonomics, office workers, occupational health, work load
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Physical care after stroke is highly variable. The effects of therapeutic exercise on the impairments after stroke remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a structured, physiologically based exercise program for subacute stroke produces larger gains than those attributable to spontaneous recovery and usual care. METHODS: This randomized, controlled, single-blind pilot study was conducted in Yozgat, Turkey and enrolled 134 patients living in the community (mean age, 67 years; mean Barthel Index [BI] score, 67.4 ± 4.8) who consented to participate and were randomized from a screened sample of 765 patients. Of these, 72 patients completed…the study. The intervention was a structured, progressive, physiologically based, nurse-supervised, in-home program of 24 1-h sessions over 12 weeks that targeted flexibility, strength, balance, endurance, and upper-limb function. The main outcome measures were postintervention activities of daily living (ADL) BI. RESULTS: The experimental group showed more improvement in ADL than the control group (BI: mean score change, 14). The BI scores in the experimental group were statistically significant (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that a pilot trial of a poststroke exercise program is feasible and is important with regard to accessibility of therapeutic exercise practice for patients at home. Improvements in the patients’ neurological impairments and ADL implied the program was beneficial.
Keywords: Activities of Daily Living (ADL), exercises, physical therapy, nursing intervention, rehabilitation
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Previous studies have analyzed the lifting capacity of either experienced workers or novices, but a systematic comparison of the lifting capacity of experienced female workers and novices has not been conducted. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to identify differences in lifting strengths and postures between experienced and novice Taiwanese female workers. METHODS: Twenty-three experienced female workers and 23 novices volunteered for this study. Their static lifting strengths (n = 46) and lifting postures (n = 22) were analyzed using statistical analysis software. RESULTS: Experienced workers’ vertical lifting strengths were approximately 5–7 kg lower than those of…novices at lower heights (≤50 cm). However, at heights equal to or higher than 90 cm, the experienced workers generated approximately 2-3 kg higher toward-body lifting strengths than did novices. The experienced workers’ strengths at all 15 lifting heights were relatively unchanged, compared with changes in the novices’ strengths. Experienced workers tended to adopt a consistently deep squat at lower heights and a more flexed arm posture at higher heights. CONCLUSIONS: Through daily work experience, experienced workers may have subconsciously learned to shift their postures to avoid overexertion. These techniques for safe lifting should be taught to new Taiwanese female workers.
Keywords: Lifting strengths, lifting postures, exertion heights, exertion directions
Abstract: BACKGROUND: As professionals work longer hours and live longer there have been concerns regarding the Work related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSD) affecting both professional and personal lives. Moreover, past decade has seen a surge in interest in all allied health sciences personnel with self reporting cross sectional studies. OBJECTIVE: Health professionals often suffer WMSD due to occupational stress. It is important to assess the problem in order to find ways to prevent it. Hence, the focus of this cross-sectional survey. The aim was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of WMSD between Australian dentists and orthodontists.…MATERIALS AND METHOD: A postal survey was sent to 447 Australian orthodontists and 450 Queensland dentists using the universal Nordic scale previously piloted at UQ and refined for this cross-sectional study. Questions were directed towards individuals, workplace and psychosocial variables and were designed to gather information regarding health, lifestyle, education, awareness of musculoskeletal problems and current preventative strategies. RESULTS: A high prevalence of musculoskeletal problems was found for both dentists (88.9%) and orthodontists (83.6%) reported in the last 12 months. The main predictor in both groups was increased work stress. Less than a third of those professionals surveyed had received education regarding dental practice ergonomics during their tertiary education. CONCLUSION: Dentists and orthodontists experienced a high rate of musculoskeletal problems which were associated with increased levels of stress at work. Further research should be directed toward interventions aimed at reducing stress in the work environment as well as improving work posture.
Keywords: Occupation, pain, ergonomics, dentistry, orthodontics, quality of life
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Inhaled dust in the environment can trigger specific reactions in the airways and cause various respiratory diseases. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the lung function and functional capacity of foundry workers who are exposed to metals and use effective control measures. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was realized with 108 workers at a bronze foundry and machining plant and in maintenance at a private university, both in Brazil. The workers were divided into two groups: the study group exposed to metals but using risk control measues and a control group not exposed to metal work. The Medical Research Council…Questionnaire on Respiratory Symptoms and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were administered, and lung function and functional capacity were evaluated. Comparative statistics were used to identify differences in the outcome measures between the two groups. RESULTS: The groups had similar personal and anthropometric characteristics and time on the job. Spirometry and peak expiratory flow presented no significant differences between the groups. And there was also no statistically significant difference between groups in functional capacity as assessed by performance on the six-minute walk test. CONCLUSION: Foundry industry workers in Brazil who were exposed to metal but used risk control measures had similar lung function and functional capacity when compared to the control group who were not exposed to metal. This is a positive results and maybe related to age, time exposure and control of occupational hazards. However, these workers need to continue being monitored in longitudinal studies.
Keywords: Pulmonary function test, exercise test, metallurgy, respiratory protective device
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Sedentariness and physical inactivity are often reported within white-collar workers, including university campus employees. However, the prevalence of the associated sedentary risk factors and risk reduction intervention strategies within a university campus workplace are less known. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates whether the prevalence of sedentary risk factors within university campus employees could be reduced with a campus based exercise intervention. METHODS: 56 UK university employees (age = 50.7 ± 10.2, stature = 1.68.8 ± 8.6, body mass = 73.9 ± 15.1) were tested for body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and maximal cardiorespiratory capacity (V…̇ O 2 max ). The prevalence was analyzed across genders and job roles. An exercise intervention followed for the sedentary employees involving walking and running for 25 min twice/week for 10 weeks at an intensity corresponding to individual’s ventilatory threshold (VT). RESULTS: The university workplace demonstrated a prevalence of higher BMI, SBP and DBP than the recommended healthy thresholds, with gender having a significant effect. Males’ BMI, SBP and DBP were higher than in females (p < 0.05) and males’ V ̇ O 2 max was lower than the recommended healthy thresholds. The exercise training intervention significantly improved V ̇ O 2 max , VT and VT velocity in both genders (all p < 0.05) with both groups meeting the recommended thresholds following the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: University campus employees have a high prevalence of sedentary risk factors across different genders and job roles. These risks can be reduced by an exercise-based intervention administered within the campus workplace, which should be considered in university workplace policies.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Public representations of ageing can influence how individuals perceive their own experience of ageing. Results of studies on the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development)’s governmental messages on older workers suggest that they are mainly constructed around economic productivity and personal responsibility. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to examine how the Canadian government frames issues around ageing, work and older workers. Canada is facing a rapidly ageing workforce, hence the importance of examining how the government discusses ageing at work. METHOD: A thematic content analysis was conducted on a total of 154…government web pages. RESULTS: Results revealed that predominant themes revolve around economic challenges resulting from an ageing workforce. Older workers are depicted as a key component for the (economic) management of an ageing workforce. More specifically, older workers who intend to continue working are highly valued in the government’s messages which present them as productive citizens and role models for “ageing well”. CONCLUSION: Canada’s response to the challenges of an ageing workforce echoes the underlying standards of positive ageing models, which may generate, perhaps inadvertently, a new form of ageism by creating intra-and intergenerational divides in the workplace.
Keywords: Ageism, work, content analysis, public representations
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Young adults with chronic health conditions can experience barriers to work performance, ability, and their present and future worker roles. OBJECTIVE: Work readiness resources can expand individuals’ work skills, abilities, and interests. METHODS: Five work readiness tools are presented (1) building an occupational profile, (2) generating environmental strategies, (3) on-the-job strategy use, and exploration of online tools (4) O*NET® and (5) O*NET® Interest Profiler, along with two theories (Knowles’s Andragogy and Lawton’s Ecological Model) to guide tool use. RESULTS: Use of these tools can assist young adults to better manage their…health and expand their vocational identities for success at work. CONCLUSIONS: These approaches and tools support health professionals, community partners, and vocational organizations in their efforts to help young adults with chronic conditions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In certain service activities, the intangibility of what is being produced hinders the vision of an expected result or product. In multi-professional teams, this difficulty becomes increasingly greater, as participants’ perceptions are conditioned to their respective fields of knowledge and different professional experiences. This is a common situation in healthcare services. OBJECTIVE: To describe and explain the work coordination process applied by multi-professional teams in order to deal with the intangibility inherent in the healthcare services. METHODS: This study involved six multi-professional teams from the public primary healthcare service in Brazil. Interviews and observations of…team meetings were carried out, with focus on the critical elements of a coordination process: work plans and routines, roles and responsibilities, knowledge sharing, and a common reference history. RESULTS: There is coexistence of two distinct coordination processes being performed in the same work activity: operational coordination , associated with activities that somehow follow standard procedures; and diagnostic coordination , associated with diagnosis construction, alternatives analysis and decision making. CONCLUSIONS: The consequences of intangibility can be overcome by mechanisms that enable a common perspective among the participants involved in the productive process, and by the team members’ familiarity with each other.
Keywords: Work organization, coordination of work, health services
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Bottling workers maintain awkward postures while performing machine paced repetitive motions in many of their job tasks and therefore are predisposed to work related musculoskeletal discomfort (WMSD). There is a paucity of literature on prevalence and impact of musculoskeletal discomfort among this occupational group. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted among Eastern Nigerian beverage factory workers to investigate prevalence of WMSD as a first step towards risk factors investigation and ergonomic future intervention. METHOD: A total of 301 workers (8 workstations) completed a modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire in this cross sectional survey. RESULTS: Twelve…month prevalence of WMSD was 91.4% and 65.1% had been prevented from doing activity at home or workplace by WMSD in the past 12 months. Shoulder, neck and upper back in that order were the most common complaints. Prevalence of WMSD in body regions were associated with age but not with gender except for neck, upper back, shoulder, and ankle/foot complaints. CONCLUSION: WMSDs are very high among beverage bottling workers. Investigation into the prevailing risk factors especially the work posture and work organization/work psychosocial factors for possible risk exposure in these workers is essential for ergonomic intervention towards work injury prevention.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Job seekers with mental health problems are more at risk of being excluded from the labour market than those without such problems. OBJECTIVE: Our aim has been to explore the experiences business leaders have of employing people with mental health problems and to investigate whether they can suggest what might be done in order to include more job seekers with mental health problems in their companies. METHODS: Our empirical sample consisted of in-depth interviews with ten business leaders who were recruited from five public and five private companies. RESULTS: On the one hand…business leaders want more openness in the hiring process in relation to any psychological problems job seekers have. On the other hand, employers were unsure whether job seekers would state that they have or have had mental health problems. CONCLUSION: The study concludes that more attention must be focused on changing business leaders’ attitudes and changing unhealthy corporate cultures that create and sustain the idea that people with mental health problems are disabled. In order to reverse the trend of increasing numbers of people with mental health problems being excluded from the labour market, it seems imperative that business leaders develop their understanding of how the workplace can accommodate employees who have a history of mental health problems.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The ability to return to work (RTW) is a significant quality of life indicator for many working aged cancer survivors. In the void of available support, many are left to independently navigate the RTW process which includes such important considerations as disclosure or concealment of diagnosis with concomitant sequellae. OBJECTIVE: This article reviews participants’ variable approaches to concealment, disclosure, or even an open educative stance as well as the associated benefits and limitations. METHODS: Photovoice methods combined with interviewing. RESULTS: While most participants disclosed their diagnosis and many extolled the benefits of an…open, educative stance, there were drawbacks experienced. Similarly, those who concealed their diagnosis also experienced benefits and challenges. CONCLUSIONS: In the current void of appropriate cancer rehabilitation supports, cancer survivors must independently negotiate their RTW process. Although most participants openly disclosed their diagnosis and associated limitations, a few concealed or camouflaged. There are benefits and limitations to both approaches of which survivors should be made aware at the outset as such will shape their RTW experience. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation support services would best guide survivors’ management of the myriad of factors that will impact their work reintegration.
Keywords: Cancer survivorship, work reintegration, disclosure, photovoice
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Visual Display Terminals (VDTs) are equipments in many workplaces which their use may increase the risk of visual, musculoskeletal and mental problems including insomnia. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between duration of daily VDT use and insomnia among the Iranian bank tellers. METHODS: We randomly selected 382 bank tellers working with VDT. Quality of sleep and stress information were collected by Athens Insomnia Scales (AIS) and Demand-Control Model (DCM) model respectively. RESULTS: Out of 382 participants, 127 (33.2%) had sleep complaints and 255 (66.8%) had no sleep disorders. Moreover, the insomnia symptoms’ score…were significantly high in the participants having more than 6 hours of daily VDT use after adjusting for multiple confounding factors (P < 0.001). There was no significant relationship between stress and insomnia. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that the low levels of stress and job satisfaction reduce the impact of VDT on sleep quality in tellers who worked less than 6 hours per day.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: An innovative self-directed vocational retraining alternative (Option 2) has been offered to eligible Washington State injured workers since 2008. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe: (1) how frequently Option 2 was selected and by whom, (2) the extent to which Option 2 workers used their reserved retraining funds, and (3) how worker satisfaction and employment outcomes for Option 2 workers compared with those of workers undergoing traditional vocational retraining. METHODS: Five-year cohort study involving workers’ compensation data, state wage files, and two worker surveys. RESULTS: Fewer than 25% of Option 2 workers used their…retraining funds. Retraining fund use was associated with better employment outcomes. Workers who were older, whose preferred language was not English, or who had lower pre-injury wages or less education, were least likely to use Option 2 retraining funds. Many workers chose Option 2 because they thought the approved traditional retraining plan was not a good fit for them. CONCLUSIONS: Self-directed retraining may benefit workers who have the ability, resources, and motivation to independently identify and complete retraining. Additional efforts may be needed to ensure that traditional retraining plans are well-suited to workers’ circumstances, and to identify and remove barriers to use of reserved retraining funds.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The complex and limited understanding of the interactions among multiple factors associated with back pain occurrence among schoolchildren might explain the current inconclusive and contradictory findings on the issue. The global increase in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, which reportedly affects children’s physical abilities, calls for concern among school/children ergonomists and other stakeholders. OBJECTIVE: The study investigated the interaction of body mass index (BMI) and age on the muscular activities, backpack height and perceived level of pain arising from carrying different weight of backpacks. METHODS: Surface electromyography analysis of erector spinae and trapezius…muscular activities was conducted on 47 primary schoolchildren aged between 8 and 11 years. Repeated measure ANOVA were carried out on the data. RESULTS: There was significant difference in all the measures of muscular activities, backpack height and pain rating at different levels of backpack weight. However, the children were only significantly fatigable in the erector spinae muscles of the lower back and not in the trapezius of the upper back. The interactive effect of BMI was more pronounced than the children’s age. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that it is not appropriate for all schoolchildren to have the same backpack weight limit and obese schoolchildren should carry a lower bag-to-body ratio of backpack weight. The younger children also need an appropriate bag surface-to-trunk ratio size of backpack as they were more affected by the position of the backpack.
Keywords: Back pain, school ergonomics, electromyography
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Work and family are the two most important domains in a person’s life. Lack of balance between work and family can lead to adverse consequences such as psychological distress; however, the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress might be mediated by job and family dissatisfaction. OBJECTIVES: This study examines a model of the four dimensions of work-family conflict and their consequences on psychological distress. In particular, we test whether job and family satisfaction mediate the effect of the four dimensions of work-family conflict on psychological distress. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 567…Malaysian women who are working in the public services. RESULTS: Structural Equation Modeling confirmed the mediating role of family satisfaction in the effect of strain-based work interference into family and time-based family interference into work on psychological distress. In addition, our results revealed a significant path that links job to family satisfaction. Moreover, time-based work interference into family and strain-based family interference into work significantly and negatively affect job satisfaction, which in turn influence family satisfaction and eventually affect psychological distress. CONCLUSION: The results of our study show that organizations need to develop and adapt family friendly policies to mitigate level of employees’ work-family conflict.
Keywords: Job satisfaction, family satisfaction, psychological distress, structured equation modeling
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Earlier studies suggest that the quality of handling occupational health and safety (OHS) activities differs between companies of different sizes. Company size is a proxy variable for other variables affecting OHS performance. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate if there is an association between company size and perceptions of work environment prioritizations. METHODS: Data from 106 small- and medium-sized Swedish manufacturing companies was collected. One manager and one safety delegate at each company rated different aspects of their companies’ work environment prioritizations with a 43-item questionnaire. Ratings were aggregated to a summary…statistic for each company before analysis. RESULTS: No significant differences in perceptions of priority were found to be associated with company sizes. This is in contrast to earlier studies of objective differences. The respondents in small companies, however, showed significantly greater consensus in their ratings. CONCLUSIONS: Company size does not appear to be associated with perceptions of work environment prioritizations. Company size is an important proxy variable to study in order to understand what factors enable and obstruct safe and healthy workplaces. The work presented here should be viewed as an initial exploration to serve as direction for future academic work.
Keywords: Company size, occupational health and safety (OHS), ergonomics, perceptions, consensus
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Although a significant proportion of patient falls in hospitals occur in the vicinity of the hospital bed, little is known about the contribution of bed height to fall risk. OBJECTIVE: To compare lower extremity joint torques and angles during hospital bed entry and egress at two bed heights. METHODS: Twelve adults (age > 55) were purposively selected and had variety of strength and mobility limitations. Biomechanical data for this pilot study were collected with three digital video cameras and processed to obtain estimates for joint torques and included angles. RESULTS: At the low bed…height, hip torque for bed entry was significantly higher, and hip, knee, and ankle flexion angles were significantly smaller. The absence of significant differences in knee and ankle torques were the result of a compensation strategy that shifts the center of mass forward by flexing the torso during low bed ingress. Torque data from the egress motion were similar, however 50% of participants were unable to rise from the low bed without assistance. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare providers should be aware that low bed heights pose safety risks to the population for which they were designed–elderly persons at high risk for falling.
Keywords: Patient safety, equipment safety, accidental falls, caregiver, healthcare provider
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common musculoskeletal issues facing military helicopter pilots. It is clinically important to identify differences in musculoskeletal characteristics between pilots with and without a LBP history for formulating effective interventions. OBJECTIVE: To compare lumbar spine and hip flexibility and trunk strength in pilots with and without a LBP history. METHODS: A total of 30 pilots with a LBP history were matched with pilots without a LBP history. An isokinetic dynamometer and a digital inclinometer were used to evaluate trunk and hip strength and a range-of-motion (ROM), respectively.…All tests were performed bilaterally, if applicable, and agonist/antagonist ratios and side-to-side (low/high) symmetries were calculated. Paired t -tests or Wilcoxon tests were used to assess group differences (p < 0.050). RESULTS: The LBP group demonstrated significantly lower trunk extension strength and trunk extension/flexion strength ratio (p < 0.008). The LBP group demonstrated significantly less lateral flexion ROM as well as greater lateral flexion and rotation side-to-side asymmetry (p < 0.009). The LBP group demonstrated significantly greater total hip rotation side-to-side asymmetry (p = 0.037). CONCLUSIONS: Given the results, specific exercises that are targeted to improve trunk strength, ROM, and side-to-side symmetries could be developed to reduce LBP in helicopter pilots.