Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 8, issue 3
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: Methanolic extracts of 15 traditionally consumed non-conventional green leafy vegetables were examined for in vitro antioxidant activity using three different assays. IC50 values measured by DPPH assay ranged from 8.98 to14.97 mg/L. In ABTS assay, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value varied from 18.3 to71.8 μM trolox/g of dry weight (dw). Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values ranged from 107.7 to 275.6 μM Fe(II) per g dw). Total phenolic content (4.62 to 14.74 mg GAE/g dry dw), flavonoid content (0.65 to 7.72 mg QE/g of dw) and Vitamin C contents (35.79 to 106.7 mg/100 g dw) were evaluated by colorimetric methods. There was…a positive linear correlation between the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities measured by three different methods.
Keywords: Green leafy vegetables, antioxidant activity, phenolic content, flavonoid content
Abstract: During the last decades, HbA1c became a standard assay in the control of risks for diabetic complications. Epidemiological studies and clinical trials have explored and determined the relationship between HbA1c and mean blood glucose. However, for patients and health care providers, a clear understanding of this relationship is necessary for setting appropriate day-to-day blood glucose testing goals aiming to achieve specific HbA1c targets while avoiding hypoglycaemia.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The low cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-1 activity was associated with reduction of adenosin triphosphate (ATP) production in diabetes mellitus (DM) individuals. Interestingly, the secondary metabolite of Dioscorea esculenta (lesser yam) fermentation in gut can increase ATP production. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lesser yam diet on ATP level and COX-1 expression in type 2 diabetic rats. METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: (1) normal rats (N), (2) diabetic rats (DM), (3) diabetic rats with lesser yam 200 mg/kg BW (DMT1), (4) diabetic rats with lesser…yam 400 mg/kg BW (DMT2), (5) diabetic rats with lesser yam 800 mg/kg BW (DMT3). The diabetic rats were induced by nicotinamide and streptozotocin and had plasma glucose more than 126 mg/dL. ATP was measured before and after 4 weeks of intervention. COX-1-was determined at skeletal muscle, heart, liver, brown adipose tissue and kidney after intervention using immuno-histochemistry (IHC). RESULTS: Fasting blood glucose was reduced in all intervention groups compared to DM group (p = 0.016). ATP level was significantly increased in DMT1 group and slightly higher in DMT2 and DMT3 compared with the negative control (p > 0.05). After the intervention, COX-1 protein expression was higher in kidney, liver and skeletal muscle in diabetic rats received lesser yam compared to DM group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In this study we found that lesser yam reduced fasting blood glucose, increase plasma ATP and expression of COX-1 protein.
Keywords: Type 2 diabetesmellitus, ATP, cytochrome-c oxidase-1, Dioscorea esculenta
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adherence to gluten free diet (GFD) has been the object of many studies but few have investigated its essential requisite: a thorough knowledge of gluten sources. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to measure celiac patients’ knowledge of GFD and assess its determinants. METHODS: A 20-item questionnaire was submitted to our celiac outpatients who were asked to indicate which foods or situations might be at risk of gluten intake. A 20-point rating scale was built giving one point for each correct answer. RESULTS: 154 patients were enrolled. The mean score of the knowledge test was…14.3±2.9. Focusing on the incorrect responses, only 20.8% of them would have placed patients at risk of consuming gluten while the other 79.2% concerned foods or situations that were unnecessarily avoided by the patients. A statistically significant lower score was obtained by patients aged over 60 years (p = 0.0002), without a degree or diploma (p = 0.0016), non-members of the Italian Celiac Association (p = 0.043), who never visited the Association website (p = 0.0002) and never ate outside (p = 0.0009). CONCLUSIONS: We identified some categories of celiac patients at risk of less knowledge of GFD who deserve special training and attention.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Osteocalcin (OC) has been suggested as a regulator of glucose metabolism. OC function and secretion depends on its carboxylation, which is a vitamin K dependent process. OBJECTIVE: A total of 205 non-diabetic postmenopausal women (fasting plasma glucose (FPG) <126 mg/dl) were enrolled in this study. METHOD: We investigated the correlation of OC and oral intake of vitamin K with incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a prospective population-based study in 205 non-diabetic postmenopausal women (FPG <126 mg/dl). We measured OC, bone turn over markers, cardiovascular risk factors, components of metabolic syndrome and oral intake of…vitamin D & K at the beginning of the study and followed these patients for five years to check development of T2DM. RESULTS: In multiple logistic regression analysis, low (<9.1) vs high (>11.6) OC level had a significant odds ratio (OR) for incidence of T2DM (OR: 2.89 with P -value: 0.038). Serum triglyceride (TG) ≥150 mg/dl (OR 2.983) and FPG 1 ≥100 mg/dl (OR: 9.881) had significant P -values for incidence of diabetes as well. However, other components of metabolic syndrome, such as Waist to Hip ratio (WHR) ≥0.9 and Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥30 had lower OR without significant P -values. Postmenopausal women who developed diabetes mellitus had significantly lower intake of vitamin K. CONCLUSION: OC is potentially able to predict incidence of diabetes mellitus better than the components of metabolic syndrome (except for FPG ≥100 mg/dl and TG >150 mg/dl). Lower incidence of diabetes in participants with higher oral intake of vitamin K may indicate that adequate levels of vitamin K lead to better function and secretion of OC, resulting in prevention of diabetes mellitus; future interventional studies using vitamin K supplementation will be needed to definitively determine this.
Keywords: Osteocalcin, vitamin K, diabetes, bone and energy metabolism
Abstract: BACKGROUND: It has been an important issue to assess energy and nutrient intakes of children within the population to observe their nutrient consumption whether it is excessive or inadequate, by comparing to reference values in the applicable Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), specifically among Jakarta population as a capital city of Indonesia. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to further perform an in-depth exploration of nutrient intake assessment in this population, particularly among 6- to 12-year-old (school age) children group in Jakarta. METHODS: Data obtained from 2nd Indonesian National Basic Health Research Survey (RISKESDAS) in a…cross-sectional setting were analyzed. The main sample consisted of children age 6- to 12-year old randomly selected in Jakarta area (n = 945). A 24-hr dietary recall was used for assessing the nutrient intake. RESULTS: Energy intake for the total population was about 79.3% from the Indonesian Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) with adequate intake of protein (112.4% ). There was an excessive intake of fat approximately about 193.4% and carbohydrate for about 150.5% , respectively. Fiber consumption was very low (18.3% ). Children in Jakarta also consumed diets that provide marginal amount of key micronutrients mainly for thiamin (vitamin B1 ), vitamin C, and zinc (less than 60% Indonesian DRI). CONCLUSIONS: Children from lower SES, girls, and the older age groups need to be given additional attention, since their daily nutrient intake were less than the counterparts. This study also suggested that the first improvement strategies are to provide diets with less fat, lower glycemic index foods, as well as higher intake of thiamin, vitamin C, and zinc.
Keywords: Nutrient intake, DRIs, school age, children, Jakarta, Indonesia
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are leading cause of death worldwide. It affects both genders, but premenopausal females are said to be better protected against this disease than males. There are few information on gender susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases in some parts of the world none is available for young, native African, semi-vegetarians. OBJECTIVES: The intent of this study is to report gender susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases in young semi-vegetarians living in Africa. DESIGN: Anthropometric, Hematological and Hemostatic indexes known to be related to cardiovascular disease risk factors were studied in 108 semi-vegetarians (55 males and 53 females).…RESULT: Height, weight, and systolic blood pressure are significantly raised in males than females (P < 0.05) while BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist to hip ratio, and diastolic blood pressure show no significant difference in both genders (P > 0.05). Hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and platelet count are significantly higher in males than females, erythrocyte sedimentation rate is significantly lower in male, total white cell count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and plasma fibrinogen concentration show no significant difference in both genders (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: We concluded that male semi vegetarians are more susceptible to cardiovascular diseases than females.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: CLA isomers were proposed as factors affecting human health, although it is nowadays not clear if positively or not. The consciousness of CLA amount in foods is thus needed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the CLA intake between male and female and the role of each food as CLA source and to complete the database on CLA content in Italian foods. METHODS: A three-days food questionnaire was administered to a cohort of 40 healthy students ranging from 19 to 25 years old. Data from the food diaries were combined with the database on CLA content in foods.…RESULTS: In our cohort the calculated average daily CLA intake was 130.8 mg overall: males daily consumed 164.86 mg of CLA, while females 96.65 mg. Cheese accounted for more than 62% of CLA intake (P < 0.05). Milk is the second food for contribution to CLA intake (16.25 mg/day; P < 0.05), while yoghurt, meat and confectionery showed a minor contribution (8.17, 5.15, and 4.91 mg/day, respectively; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: CLA intake in our cohort was lower than value proposed as biologically relevant (3 g/day). Dairy foods were the most relevant sources of CLA in both sexes.