Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 11, issue 3
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Olive fruits have become extremely valuable because they have important nutrient properties and have shown positive benefits for human health. The chemical composition and organoleptic characteristics may be influenced by genotype and some agronomic factors like olive drupe harvesting date. OBJECTIVE: In this study, the greatest interest is to clarify and to give more information for Algerian Olea europaea L. by investigation of their total phenolic and flavonoid contents, phenolic compounds identification, total antioxidant capacity and antihemolytic activity at two levels of the olive ripening process. METHODS: Colorimetric methods were used to quantify total…phenolic and flavonoid contents. The phenolic composition was done by HPLC technique. The antioxidant activity was assessed by measuring radical scavenging activity against 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS• + ) expressed as Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and antihemolytic activity. RESULTS: The harvesting time effect on HPLC analysis of olive fruits was significant. Interestingly, the phenolic composition of the olive fruits differed greatly between samples. Two compounds usually not described in olive fruit were identified, namely morine dihydrate and coumarin. The amounts of total phenolics varied widely in the investigated extracts and ranged from 495 to 2325 mg GAE/100 g for black olives and from 865 to 2387 mg GAE/100 g for green olives, whereas the flavonoids content expressed as rutin equivalent per 100 gram of defatted dry matter was ranged between 155 and 354 mg/100 g for green olives and between 214 and 260 mg/100 g for black olives. The antioxidant activity of black and green olives ranged from 5.86 and 4.88 to 59.44 and 50.50 mM Trolox equivalents respectively, while ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was within the range of 0.36 and 0.31 to 4.41 and 3.04 mM Fe(II) respectively. Majority of extracts exhibited a beneficial antihemolytic effect. CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that the level of maturation influences the chemical composition, antioxidant and bioactive properties. Consequently, this allows us to estimate the best and optimal harvest time.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: There is an important interest to research new protein sources. In this context, Microalgae, particularly Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis ), seems to be a good alternative due to its wealthy nutritional composition. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to optimize Spirulina functional properties and to extract protein from whole biomass using (RSM). METHODS: Ultrasound wad used as pre-treatment to optimize functional properties and to extract proteins from Spirulina powder by isoelectric precipitation. The effect of ultrasound and remaining parameters (pH, temperature, solid to liquid ratio and time) was evaluated…by Box-Behnken design. The model was fitted by ANOVA analysis. RESULTS: ANOVA analysis showed a significant model (p < 0.05) for functional properties and protein extraction. The protein content of Spirulina powder was found to be 55% (w/w). There is a significant effect of ultrasound on functional properties and protein extraction from Spirulina. The optimum Water Holding Capacity (WHC) was 4.97 g H2 O/g Spirulina powder, obtained at pH 4, 50 W power and 5 min sonication. The optimum Oil Holding Capacity (OHC) is 2.3 g H2 O/g Spirulina powder, it was obtained at 50°C temperature, 70 w power and 10 min sonication. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound has a significant effect on functional properties and protein extraction from Spirulina. Arthrospira platensis grown in Algeria could be incorporated in foodstuff as natural supplement to improve nutritional value and consumer acceptability.
Keywords: Arthrospira platensis
, Ultrasound, Water holding capacity, Oil holding capacity, Protein content
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Dietary fiber intake might have a protective role against obesity. The aim of this study is to explore the association of dietary fiber intake with general and abdominal obesity in Iranian children and adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional nationwide study was conducted on 5187 students aged 6–18 years, living in 30 provinces of Iran. They were selected randomly through cluster sampling method. Data on demographic and anthropometric indices including weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were collected by trained interviewers. A valid and reliable 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess student’s usual…dietary intake including total dietary fiber. All dietary reports were converted to daily consumption (g/day) using household measures for different portion sizes. Food items were then converted to their nutrient content. Energy-adjusted dietary fiber intake (g/1000 kcal/day) was also calculated using the energy density method. Multivariate regression models were applied to explore the association between dietary fiber intake and anthropometric indices. RESULTS: The mean and standard deviation (SD) for age of participants were 11.40 (3.20) years. Of 5187 students, 52.6% were boys and 72.5% were from urban areas (participation rate: 79.7%). White bread (32.5%), white rice (17.1%) and potato (11.7%) were the most common sources of dietary fiber intake. Each 1 g/1000 Kcal increase in dietary fiber intake was significantly associated with lower weight and waist circumference (P = 0.006 and P = 0.008, respectively). CONCLUSION: Higher fiber intake was associated with lower anthropometric indices including weight and WC. Increased fiber intake should be encouraged for children and adolescents.
Keywords: Dietary fiber, body mass index, overweight and obesity, waist circumference, children and adolescents
Abstract: Since the dawn of time human beings have been trying to improve the quality of the existence and extend their lifespan. Genetic, environmental, behavioral and dietary factors influence the pathways that regulate aging and life expectancy, thus rendering longevity a very complex phenomenon. Although a long-lived elixir has not yet been found, physicians and scientists agree that nutrition has a major impact on the overall mortality and morbidity, hence becoming the subject of a widespread scientific research. This review describes, analyzes and compares the effects of different types of diets in reducing the onset of typical Western countries non-communicable…diseases (NCDs) (cardiovascular diseases, tumors, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes, etc.), thus increasing the average lifespan. It will first depict the most relevant characteristics, nutraceutical properties and effects on the populations of the Mediterranean, Japanese, Vegetarian and New Nordic Diet. Finally, it will describe the impact of different dietary restrictions in modulating the genetic pathways that regulate metabolism and aging. Overall, this work reinforces the evidence that specific eating habits, in addition to healthy and active lifestyles, are crucial to increase people’s health span and to achieve an optimal longevity.
Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIM: Health benefits of green tea for a wide variety of ailments, including the cancer, heart disease, and liver disease, were reported. It is believed to have beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of many diseases, one of which is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study inspects the protective effect of green tea against atherosclerosis and NAFLD in comparative approach between curative and preventive models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty four of Wistar rats were studied for 150 days. After 15 days of adaptation period, rats were divided into four groups including normal Group (NG), control Hypercholesterolemic…diet Group (CHDG), preventive Group (PG) and curative Group (CG) that followed respectively the following regimens: 1 mL/kg of sunflower oil for 150 days, 1 mL/kg of cholesterol solution prepared at 1.5% (w/v) in sunflower oil span 150 days, 1 ml/kg of cholesterol solution at 1.5% (w/v) in sunflower oil with 3 mL/kg GTLE for 60 days and 1 mL/kg of cholesterol solution at 1.5% (w/v) in sunflower oil for 30 days followed by 3 mL/kg of GTLE for 30 days. These both PG and CG groups were ingested with cholesterol 1.5% (w/v) during remaining period. RESULTS: The results showed significant increase, except for NG, during the 30 first days (p ≤0.001) in lipid serum profiles including Total Cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TG) and Low-Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c). However, the High-Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) profile decreased during the treatment (p ≤0.001). The ingestion of GTLE in treated groups (CG and PG) declined significantly (p ≤0.001) in blood lipid concentrations (TC: 67%, TG: 23%, LDL-c: 81.12%) except for the HDL-c that increased up to 15%. The Atherogenic Index (AI) also decreased significantly (p ≤0.001) up to 48%, in CG and PG. PG and NG marked same SOD activity values (130.91±7.66 versus 141.31±8.21 U/mL), while CG showed the lowest level. Liver sections were well protected in protective model than curative one.
Keywords: Green tea leaves extract, liver, hypocholesterolemia, non alcoholic fatty liver, polyphenols
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Unsaponifiable matters (USM) from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) contains vitamin E (mainly tocotrienols), phytosterols, and squalene that have ability to reduce blood cholesterol. Fortification of USM into food products is a way for hypercholesterolemia management. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated effects of fortification of USM from PFAD into instant noodle, bread, and biscuit on lipid profile improvement of hypercholesterolemia rats. It was also aimed to compare the effects of different type of foods as USM carrier that represented different processing steps and nutritional composition. METHODS: Rats were divided into control-standard diet and atherogenic diet fed…groups, and 6 hypercholesterolemia groups fed by instant noodle, plain bread, and biscuit with 1% USM fortification and without fortification for 8 weeks. Lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol) was analysed at week 0, 4, and 8. Hepatic and fecal cholesterol and bile acid were also examined at the end of experiment to elucidate some mechanism of cholesterol lowering due to USM fortified foods administration. RESULTS: Some bioactive compounds lost during USM fortified food preparation and the highest retention was found in biscuit. Lipid profile improvement was indicated by reduction of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol, meanwhile HDL cholesterol increased. Type of fortified foods affected the level of alteration of lipid profile. Degree of lipid profile improvement was affected by nutritional composition of fortified foods, food intake of the rats, and level of bioactive content. Bioactive compounds in USM fortified foods inhibited cholesterol absorption that indicated by higher fecal cholesterol and bile acid compared to atherogenic diet fed group. Modulation of cholesterol synthesis was likely to occur that indicated by lower hepatic cholesterol and higher bile acids. CONCLUSIONS: Feeding of USM fortified food products improved lipid profile of hypercholesterolemia rats.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The aim of study was to assess the reliability and validity of the14-point Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) among Iranian high risk population. METHODS: Study was conducted in north of Iran a country with a Shiite majority with religious constraints, so we modified the MEDAS in the Farsi version. We applied reliability analysis using the Kuder – Richardson 20 and the alpha coefficient of Cronbach, with SPSS to interpret the effects of each item of MEDAS in its internal consistency. RESULTS: After correcting the item scores, coefficients of Kuder-Richardson-20 was calculated 0.559. The mean±SD of…13 items MEDAS was 5.73±1.88. None of Corrected Item-Total Correlation coefficients were negative. 43%, 53% and 4% participants had low, medium and high adherence to a Mediterranean diet respectively. CONCLUSION: In spite of making a few changes in questions, the coefficients of Kuder-Richardson-20 did not decrease in reliability analysis. The MEDAS was translated for the first time into Farsi. Administering this tool in future researches will help to understand how Iranian adhere to the mediterranean diet, aiming at improving cardiovascular health.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Margarine is a widely consumed product in Algeria. Few or no studies have been conducted to estimate its safety and nutritional quality. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate some algerian margarines. Particular interest is given to their oxidative stability and fatty acid composition. METHODS: Twelve margarines are selected, including tub and stick margarines, puff pastry margarines and vegetable smen. We evaluate physicochemical parameters (water content, pH, salt content, melting point and solids content with RMN), oxydative stability with Rancimat and fatty acid composition with GLC. RESULTS: The analyzed products are mostly in conformity…with standards. The estimation of the oxidative stability revealed that tub margarines are the least stable. Fatty acid composition showed that practically all the analyzed products are rich in SFA. CONCLUSION: Large amounts of highly saturated oils such as palm oil, coconut and palm kernel are used. The fact that the trans fatty acids content is not very high in Algerian margarines and vegetable smen is not due to the legislation applied but to the awareness of few industries and especially to the import price exerted on different types of fat. So it is in view of profitability that industries choose raw material and not in a health concern.
Keywords: Margarine, vegetable smen, oxidation, SFC, fatty acid profile, SFA, trans FA
Abstract: Positive evidence for anticancer activities of honey is growing and the mechanism on how honey has anticancer characteristics is an area of great interest. Honey has been studied in various cancer cell lines for its ability to induce apoptosis, with several mechanisms of action being suggested. This study aims to evaluate the apoptotic activity of the non cytotoxic Sidr Kashmiry honey and its residue of successive fractionation as well as the cytotoxic chloroform-methanol and ethyl acetate fractions against hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro . Apoptosis was assessed by DNA fragmentation, diphenyl amine assay, and ultrastructure investigation. Micronuclei test was carried…out to assess genotoxicity. Crude honey, residue, ethyl acetate and chloroform-methanol induced apoptosis, however, the residue and ethyl acetate caused high genotoxicity. Non cytotoxic Sidr Kashmiry honey and its cytotoxic chloroform-methanol fraction could be a powerful pro-apoptotic and non-genotoxic anticancer agent.