Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 10, issue 2
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to explore possible links between adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeD), general dietary behaviors, energy balance behaviors, excess body weight, other lifestyle habits and academic performance in Greek adolescents. METHODS: A total of 520 students (256 boys; 264 girls), 15–18 years old, were recruited from the four Departments of Secondary Education in the area of Athens, Greece. Students completed a specifically designed energy balance behaviors questionnaire together with the KIDMED index, which evaluates the degree of adherence to the MeD. In addition, various other questionnaires were used such as the Physical…Activity and Lifestyle Questionnaire (PALQ), the STAI questionnaire to measure anxiety levels, the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (SPPA) and selected subscales of the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ) to assess the adolescents’ attitudes towards health. Academic performance was assessed using the students’ average score for all school subjects. Standard anthropometric measurements were also taken. RESULTS: Block stepwise regression analysis was conducted. Results indicate that family meals (β= 0.087, P = 0.017), adherence to the MeD (0.176, P = 0.001), soft drinks consumption (β= –0.104, P = 0.004), TV viewing (β= –0.068, P = 0.047) and smoking (β= –0.159, P = 0.001) are significant factors in predicting academic performance in adolescents. CONCLUSION: Poor adherence to the MeD, small number of family meals, high soft drinks consumption and smoking, may have a negative influence on academic performance in adolescents.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a period characterized by important psychological and physical appearance changes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study is the assessment of the frequency of different nutritional status grades of Algerian schoolchildren and adolescents. METHODS We conducted a survey among 2 278 schoolchildren and adolescents of 8–18 years-old in the period 2013–2014. For each child the height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The prevalence of, overweight and obesity was assessed using the World Health Organization (WHO-2007) and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Pearson’s chi-square test was used…to assess significant differences in prevalence. All analyses were completed using the SPSS statistical package, version 20. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity were respectively 28.8% (95% CI, 26–31.6); 10.5% (95% CI, 8.6–12.4) for the boys and 25.5% (95% CI, 23–28); 5.8% (95% CI, 4.4–7.1) for the girls. Sex as a risk factor for obesity in Algerian schoolchildren and adolescents; the odds ratio of obesity was 2.50 times (95% CI, 1.40–3.20; P < 0.017) higher in boys compared to girls. CONCLUSION: The results revealed the high prevalence of obesity and overweight. The absence of a national database on the nutritional status of children and adolescent needs the establishment of a monitoring program of their nutritional status to avoid any complications in the adult age.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Risk factors for hypertension (HT) are age, high sodium (Na) intake, and low potassium (K) intake, as well as the geographical location of a region such us coastal area. Calculation of the sodium-to-potassium (Na/K) ratio was more∼strongly associated with blood pressure (BP) than either Na or K alone. Dietary recalls and urine analyses are the most feasible methods for estimating electrolyte intake. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze the association between both urinary and dietary (Na/K) ratio and BP among older women residing at urban coastal in Indonesia. METHODS: The cross-sectional study involved 51 older…women aged ≥45 y post menopause in urban coastal dwellers.A single 24-h urine collection and food recall 2×24 h were used to assess sodium and potassium intake. RESULTS: Of the 51 subjects mean age 56.98±5.7 years completed the study, 37.3% of subjects were classified as hypertensive. The mean of urinary and dietary Na/K ratio were 5.28±1.68 and 1.12±0.74 respectively. Urinary Na/K ratio was independently associated with systolic BP (SBP), meanwhile, the association between dietary Na/K ratio and both SBP and diastolic BP (DBP) showed significant correlation only in the unadjusted model. CONCLUSION: Na/K ratio is a useful marker for estimating SBP and assessing populations at high risk for HT. The slightly low Na and substantially low K intake might cause the Na/K ratio become high enough to induce HT. Since the prevalence of HT is high enough, studies in this field may provide clues for the further understanding of its causes and get effectively ways to decrease Na/K ratio in urban coastal dwellers.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated that continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is effective in reducing complications in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) in intermediate follow-up; moreover, a recent reports showed cardiovascular mortality reduction in comparison to multiple daily injections (MDI) at 6 years. The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term outcomes of CSII in a cohort of adult type 1 diabetic patients in term of mortality, complications and life-threatening diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study on 141 patients who started CSII before January 2005. Long-term complications, CSII attrition, survival, life-threatening…diseases, all mortality causes and the last follow-up HbA1c were recorded. RESULTS: The median duration of CSII at the time of analysis was 13 years. Mean age and duration of diabetes at CSII initiation were 38±7 years and 14±10 years, respectively. 11 (7.8%) patients suspended CSII, 5 (3.5%) died (only one –0.7% –for a cardiovascular event). 15 patients (11%) experienced at least one complication related to diabetes. At the last follow-up, mean HbA1c was 56±13 mmol/mol (7.3±1.0%; 36–119 mmol/mol, 5.4–13.0%). Patients who spent more than 55% of their disease duration on CSII developed less events/complications in comparison to patients spending less than 55%. No gender differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that in a clinical setting, long-term (>10 years) CSII treated patients have good glycaemic control at the last visit and a high rate of therapy adherence. The Fractional Time in which patients were treated by CSII is related to low long-term mortality and rate of complications. CSII may be considered an effective and durable therapeutic option for type 1 diabetes early in the course of the disease.
Keywords: Insulin pumps, long term continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, type 1 diabetes, diabetes complications, survival
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Metabolic profiles of individuals living in the Mediterranean area is changing over time, with significant increase of average body weight, blood pressure, blood glucose and lipids. OBJECTIVE: The main aim was to assess the prevalence of excess weight, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia and their interrelationships between specific background characteristics (age, sex, educational, occupational, physical activity, smoking and marital status, and alcohol drinking habits). METHODS: The paper is based on the Mediterranean healthy Eating, Lifestyle and Aging (MEAL) study cohort, which is a cross-sectional survey carried out in Sicily between 2014 and 2015. A final sample…of 1,814 individuals with complete information on demographic and lifestyle characteristics was examined. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 35.7% and 17.6%, respectively; 57.6% of men and 45.3% of women were hypertensive, 11.1% of men and 5.1% of women were diabetic, and 14.6% of men and 21.2% of women suffered by dyslipidemia. Besides various expected associations, such as better metabolic status in high physical active and non-smoker individuals, with higher education or occupational status were more likely, to a various extent, to suffer of metabolic disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Public health prevention campaigns should better target individuals more likely to suffer of metabolic disorders, including those with higher education and occupational level, which were supposed to be at lower risk of cardio-metabolic diseases. Future studies should better investigate the possible positive associations and determining factors of excess body weight and hypertension with higher socio-economic status in Southern Italy.
Keywords: Metabolic profile, BMI, blood pressure, Mediterranean, cohort study
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Date fruits are the most commonly used part of palms Phoenix dactylifera L. due to their richness in several nutrients and dietary antioxidants. These fruits are widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various diseases and intoxication. OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of dates extract against dichloro (DCA) and trichloroacetic (TCA) acids-induced oxidative stress in blood rats. METHODS: Eighty male Wistar rats divided into ten equal groups were given the following treatment for 2 months: Two groups were controls, one treated with aqueous Degla extract (ADE) and other…with saline (C). Two groups received 0.5 g/L of TCA or DCA and two other groups received 2 g/L of TCA or DCA in drinking water. Four groups treated with ADE and TCA or DCA at 0.5 and 2 g/L. RESULTS: DCA and TCA administration decreased significantly plasma glucose, hemoglobin, total protein, albumin, globulins, calcium and high density lipoprotein levels. While, they significantly increased the levels of plasmatic phosphorus, magnesium, triglyceride, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein. DCA and TCA treatment induced also significant increase in plasma lipid peroxidation levels and decrease in catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. In contrast pretreatment with the ADE restored all the parameters cited above to near-normal values. CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation revealed that the ADE appeared to be a promising agent for protection against DCA and TCA toxicity.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The date palms being an important plantation crop in Saudi Arabia have wide varieties with varying nutritional regime. The fruit called date is considered as an important staple food, when such nutritional composition is explored it helps for the community to choose the varieties according to their needs. OBJECTICVE: An in vitro study was undertaken to evaluate various nutritional values of seven different varieties of date fruits collected from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Experiments were conducted to analyse the biometric parameters, biochemical and mineral constituents, defense and antioxidant activities of date fruits…extract. RESULTS: The biometric results revealed that among seven different varieties of date fruits, the highest length of date fruit (52.1±0.08 mm) was recorded in Date variety. In contrast, the highest breadth (32.0±0.18 mm) was recorded in Sukkari. Analysis of biochemical constituents on date fruits showed that the selected varieties contained significantly different amounts of moisture, protein, carbohydrates, lipids, ash, crude fiber and total solid. It showed the presence of vitamins and minerals in substantial amount at varying level. In addition, the date fruit varieties contained appreciable number of total polyphenols and flavonoids which ranged from 21.61±2.36 and 1.25±0.53 to 47.01±2.55 and 2.57±0.63 mg/100 g of DW (Dry Weight) respectively. The antioxidant activities of date fruit varieties exhibited were expressed in percentage inhibition of radical scavenging activity for different methods as follows: DPPH (2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhudrazyl) ranged from 26.78±2.53 to 62.17±3.37%, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was within the range of 22.33±3.33 to 56.55±3.40%, and scavenging of hydrogen peroxide ranged from 17.41±0.78 to 42.11±2.72% of inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: The above studies showed the impact of nutritive value of date fruit varieties in the following order: Rothan > Dawee > Ekhlass Alhasa > Abu Minifee > Sukkai > Ekhlass Almajmaah > Sukkari.
Keywords: Saudi Arabian dates, fruit size, vitamins, minerals, phenolics, antioxidant
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Early optimized lifestyle and medication treatment can reduce the burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although Diabetologists take care of most Italian people with T2DM and are the only allowed to prescribe innovative drugs, still half T2DM patients are poorly controlled. AIMS: To verify specialists’ propensity to reach individualized glycemic goals by treating to target newly referred people with T2DM having HbA1c levels >7% (>53 mmol/mol). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 2536 poorly controlled, orally treated T2DM from all over Italy were evaluated and followed up for 6 months for appropriate nutritional and pharmacologic treatment in a…specialized setting and diabetologists filled in a questionnaire on supposed reasons behind patients’ poor metabolic control and on their own therapeutic choices. RESULTS: At the first visit only 71.8% people underwent slight treatment adaptations (through a slight reduction of secretagogue utilization accompanied, to a lesser extent, by some increase in incretin prescription (from 13.4% to 33.5%; p < 001) and by de novo insulin administration (3.8%). Specialists stated three major reasons for poor control as observed at referral. Two of them, i.e. disease per se (secondary failure) and patients’ attitude (poor adherence), were high-rated, while the other one, addressing clinicians’ responsibility, was only marginally accounted for despite most diabetes specialists still going on with secretagogues all the time. Detailed results are provided within the text. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of their well-recognized professional competence and their consistent reasoned diet and exercise advice, Italian diabetologists seldom complied with guidelines suggesting to move on to safer innovative drugs or insulin when needed. Their prescription behavior showed un underestimation of hypoglycemic and beta-cell functional exhaustion risk associated with secretatogues, and a low propensity to try and reach individualized glycemic goals through an early and strict treat-to-target approach.
Keywords: Nutrition, hypoglycemic agents, behavior, treat-to-target, Type 2 diabetes