Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
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Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology is an international journal designed for the diverse community (biomedical, industrial and academic) of users and developers of novel x-ray imaging techniques. The purpose of the journal is to provide clear and full coverage of new developments and applications in the field.
Areas such as x-ray microlithography, x-ray astronomy and medical x-ray imaging as well as new technologies arising from fields traditionally considered unrelated to x rays (semiconductor processing, accelerator technology, ionizing and non-ionizing medical diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, etc.) present opportunities for research that can meet new challenges as they arise.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dose calculation accuracy in the Prowess Panther treatment planning system (TPS) using the collapsed cone convolution (CCC) algorithm. METHODS: The BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) package was used to predict the dose distribution of photon beams produced by the Oncor ® linear accelerator (linac). The MC model of an 18 MV photon beam was verified by measurement using a p -type diode dosimeter. Percent depth dose (PDD) and dose profiles were used for comparison based on three field sizes: 5×5, 10×10, and 20×20cm2 . The accuracy of the CCC dosimetry was also evaluated using…a plan composed of a simple parallel-opposed field (11×16cm2 ) in a lung phantom comprised of four tissue simulating media namely, lung, soft tissue, bone and spinal cord. The CCC dose calculation accuracy was evaluated by MC simulation and measurements according to the dose difference and 3D gamma analysis. Gamma analysis was carried out through comparison of the Monte Carlo simulation and the TPS calculated dose. RESULTS: Compared to the dosimetric results measured by the Farmer chamber, the CCC algorithm underestimated dose in the planning target volume (PTV), right lung and lung-tissue interface regions by about –0.11%, –1.6 %, and –2.9%, respectively. Moreover, the CCC algorithm underestimated the dose at the PTV, right lung and lung-tissue interface regions in the order of –0.34%, –0.4% and –3.5%, respectively, when compared to the MC simulation. Gamma analysis results showed that the passing rates within the PTV and heterogeneous region were above 59% and 76%. For the right lung and spinal cord, the passing rates were above 80% for all gamma criteria. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the CCC algorithm has potential to calculate dose with sufficient accuracy for 3D conformal radiotherapy within the thorax where a significant amount of tissue heterogeneity exists.
Keywords: Monte Carlo, treatment planning, collapsed cone convolution, 3D conformal
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Hip fracture is considered one of the salient disability factors across the global population. People with hip fractures are prone to become permanently disabled or die from complications. Although currently the premier determiner, bone mineral density has some notable limitations in terms of hip fracture risk assessment. OBJECTIVES: To learn more about bone strength, hip geometric features (HGFs) can be collected. However, organizing a hip fracture risk study for a large population using a manual HGFs collection technique would be too arduous to be practical. Thus, an automatic HGFs extraction technique is needed. METHOD: This…paper presents an automated HGFs extraction technique using regional random forest. Regional random forest localizes landmark points from femur DXA images using local constraints of hip anatomy. The local region constraints make random forest robust to noise and increase its performance because it processes the least number of points and patches. RESULTS: The proposed system achieved an overall accuracy of 96.22% and 95.87% on phantom data and real human scanned data respectively. CONCLUSION: The proposed technique’s ability to measure HGFs could be useful in research on the cause and facts of hip fracture and could help in the development of new guidelines for hip fracture risk assessment in the future. The technique will reduce workload and improve the use of X-ray devices.
Keywords: DXA imaging system, hip geometric features, random forest, contour
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Numerous techniques had been proposed to reduce radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT) including the use of radiation shielding. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate efficacy of using a bismuth breast shield and optimized scanning parameter to reduce breast absorbed doses from CT thorax examination. METHODS: Five protocols comprising the standard CT thorax clinical protocol (CP1) and four modified protocols (CP2 to CP5) were applied in anthropomorphic phantom scans. The phantom was configured as a female by placing a breast component on the chest. The breast component was divided into four quadrants, where 2…thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD-100) were inserted into each quadrant to measure the absorbed dose. The bismuth shield was placed over the breast component during CP4 and CP5 scans. RESULTS: The pattern of absorbed doses in each breast and quadrant were approximately the same for all protocols, where the 4th quadrant > 3rd quadrant > 2nd quadrant > 1st quadrant. The mean absorbed dose value in CP3 was reduced to almost 34% of CP1’s mean absorbed dose. It was reduced even lower to 15% of CP1’s mean absorbed dose when the breast shield was used in CP5. CONCLUSION: This study showed that CT radiation exposure on the breast could be reduced by using a bismuth shield and low tube potential protocol without compromising the image quality.
Keywords: Computed tomography, bismuth shielding, organ equivalent dose, scan
protocols, tube potential, breast
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography (CTPA) examination has been frequently applied in detecting suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). How to reduce radiation dose to patients is also of concern. OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of using 640-slice CT wide-detector volume scan with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm in low-dose CTPA. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients who performed with CTPA were divided into two groups randomly. In the first experimental group (n = 30), ASIR combined with volume scan were performed on the patients, while in the second conventional group (n = 28), patients received ASIR combined with conventional spiral…scan. General data including age and body mass index, image quality, pulmonary arterial phase, and radiation dose were analyzed by t test in the two groups. RESULTS: In both groups, all images revealed the 5-order or higher pulmonary arterial branches and fully met the needs for clinical diagnosis. There was no statistical difference in general data between the two groups. In terms of pulmonary phase accuracy, compared with the conventional group, images at pulmonary arterial phase could be captured more accurately in the experimental group. CTDI in the experimental group decreased by 30% compared with that in the conventional group. The actual radiation dose in the experimental group was 1.5 mSv, which is reduced by 53% compared to that in the conventional group. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the conventional spiral scan, using 640-slice CT volume scan with ASIR in CTPA is more accurate in scanning phase and has lower radiation dose. There is no significant difference in image quality between the two groups.
Abstract: Prostatic rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a subtype of prostate stromal sarcoma which is rarely reported in adults and usually huge in size. Although there is no consensus on the standard therapy to prostatic RMS, complete resection with negative margin is identified as the best way for maximum survival time. However, to remove a much enlarged prostate completely from a RMS patient is still a very difficult task for a skilled urologist so far. As three-dimension (3D) technology becomes more widely used in medicine, surgeons have the opportunity to challenge previously impossible surgery. In this paper, we reported a 36-year-old male patient…with a 9.6*5.3*7.6 cm prostatic RMS. With the aid of 3D reconstructed video and printing model, the giant tumor was entirely removed without surgery complications and adjacent organs injury. The patient was alive and had no recurrence after 18 months from surgery. This case revealed that 3D reconstruction technology could help in the preoperative assessment and gave benefits to both patients and surgeons.
Abstract: Sparse-view Computed Tomography (CT) has important significance in industrial inspection and medical diagnosis. Mojette transform is a kind of discrete Radon transform that can yield exact reconstructions instead of an approximate solution due to finite Radon sampling. However, the image is iteratively reconstructed pixel by pixel from corner to center, and the image error is proportional to the number of iterations. In this paper, we propose that there exist different sets of projection combinations to recover the original image within the close-to-minimal iterations. And a scheme is given to obtain multiple projection sets, each of which has the same number…of minimum iterations and can recover a CT image with a similar level of small noise but different distributions. These images can be used further to restore the final CT image by counteracting noise with each other. The accuracy and validity of the proposed algorithm are verified by comparison with both other Mojette inversion algorithms and the classical SART algorithm.
Keywords: Radon transform, Mojette transform, close-to-minimal iterations, counteracting-noise, different sets of projection combinations
Abstract: BACKGROUND: SPECT MPI (Single photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging) is an essential tool for diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, but it also involves considerable exposure to ionizing radiation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the radioprotective potential of lipoic acid free and nano-capsule against 99m Tc-MIBI-induced injury in cardiovascular tissue. METHODS: The radioprotective ability was assessed by blood count, histopathology and heart enzymes in different groups of mice. Hearts of mice from all groups were dissected and prepared for oxidative stress analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Furthermore, levels of DNA damage in heart and bone…marrow cells were evaluated by alkaline comet assay technique. The same measurements were estimated after treating the mice with lipoic acid. RESULTS: Comparing mice injected by radiopharmaceutics with control group showed a significant depression in the count of white blood cells (WBC) by about 40 % at 24 &72 hrs post-radiopharmaceutical administration. Moreover, platelets count was decreased by 27% at 72 hrs post-radiopharmaceutical administration. Radiation also dropped in super oxide dismutase (SOD) and increased in activity of heart enzymes and level of MDA (Malondialdehyde). Additionally, histopathological observation was characterized by focal necrosis of cardiac myocytes. 99m Tc-MIBI induced DNA damage had significant increase. Nevertheless, pretreatment with free and lipoic acid nano-capsules (LANC’s) prevented the reduction induced in WBCs and platelets, and improved their counts significantly. Conversely pre-treatment with lipoic acid free and nano-capsule significantly increased the activity of SOD and decreased the level of MDA and therefore protected the cardiovascular tissues and reduced DNA strand-break, consequently and enhanced the body weight of the mice. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the efficacy of lipoic acid free and nano-capsule as a radio protector.
Keywords: Lipoic acid free and nano-capsule, Radioprotection,
99mTc-MIBI, Antioxidant, DNA damage
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the difference in absorbed organ dose and image quality for head-neck CT angiography using organ dose modulation compared with 3D smart mA modulation in different body mass indices (BMIs) using an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR-V) algorithm. METHODS: Three hundred patients underwent head-neck CTA were equally divided into three groups: A (18.5 kg/m2 ≦BMI < 24.9 kg/m2 ), B (24.9 kg/m2 ≦BMI < 29.9 kg/m2 ) and C (29.9 kg/m2 ≦BMI≦34.9 kg/m2 ). The groups were randomly subdivided into two subgroups (n = 50): A1-A2, B1-B2 and C1-C2. The patients in subgroups A1, B1 and C1 underwent organ dose modulation with the ASiR-V algorithm,…while other patients underwent 3D smart mA modulation. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of all head-neck CT angiography images were calculated. Images were then subjectively evaluated. Mean values of several indices including dose-length product (DLP) were computed. The DLP was converted to the effective dose (ED). SNR, CNR and ED in groups A, B, and C were compared in statistical data analysis. RESULTS: SNR, CNR, and subjective image scores show no statistical differences in three groups (P > 0.05). However, there is significant difference of ED values (P < 0.05) . For example, in subgroup A1 mean ED values are 15.30% and 23.66% lower than those in subgroup A2 at thyroid gland and eye lens, respectively. Similar patterns also exist in groups B (B1 vs. B2) and C (C1 vs. C2). CONCLUSIONS: Using organ dose modulation and applying the ASiR-V algorithm can more effectively reduce the radiation dose in head-neck CT angiography than using 3D smart mA modulation, while maintaining image quality. Thus, using organ-based dose modulation has the additional benefit of reducing dose to the thyroid gland and eye lens.
Keywords: Organ dose modulation, 3D smart mA modulation, radiation dose, image quality, head-neck CT angiography
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Due to large dimensional matrix multiplications, the existing iterative algorithms for cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstruction often face problems of heavy computational workload and large volume of memory usage. OBJECTIVE: This study proposes and tests an iterative algorithm of 3DA-TVAL3 for fast reconstruction of CBCT images using undersampled measurement data and the reduced amount of computer memories. METHODS: In order to reduce computational workload and computer memories based on the sparsity of the CBCT measurement matrix, the proposed iterative algorithm applies elementwise scalar multiplications in the iterative computation to search for optimal solution. Through…a number of tests on three different CT data sets with different number of projections, the reconstruction performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with that of two accelerated iterative algorithms and the conventional FDK algorithm. RESULTS: The visual and quantitative evaluations using the normalized mean square error, peak signal to noise ratio and structural similarity metrics demonstrated the faster computational time and the higher image quality of using the proposed 3DA-TVAL3 algorithm than using other conventional algorithms under comparison. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed 3DA-TVAL3 algorithm can perform efficient and fast computation of CBCT reconstruction using the reduced amount of computer memories.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Computer aided detection (CADe) of pulmonary nodules from computed tomography (CT) is crucial for early diagnosis of lung cancer. Self-learned features obtained by training datasets via deep learning have facilitated CADe of the nodules. However, the complexity of CT lung images renders a challenge of extracting effective features by self-learning only. This condition is exacerbated for limited size of datasets. On the other hand, the engineered features have been widely studied. OBJECTIVE: We proposed a novel nodule CADe which aims to relieve the challenge by the use of available engineered features to prevent convolution neural networks (CNN)…from overfitting under dataset limitation and reduce the running-time complexity of self-learning. METHODS: The CADe methodology infuses adequately the engineered features, particularly texture features, into the deep learning process. RESULTS: The methodology was validated on 208 patients with at least one juxta-pleural nodule from the public LIDC-IDRI database. Results demonstrated that the methodology achieves a sensitivity of 88% with 1.9 false positives per scan and a sensitivity of 94.01% with 4.01 false positives per scan. CONCLUSIONS: The methodology shows high performance compared with the state-of-the-art results, in terms of accuracy and efficiency, from both existing CNN-based approaches and engineered feature-based classifications.
Keywords: Computer aided detection (CADe), computed tomography (CT) imaging, pulmonary nodules, deep learning, image features analysis