Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Volume 24, issue 5
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Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology is an international journal designed for the diverse community (biomedical, industrial and academic) of users and developers of novel x-ray imaging techniques. The purpose of the journal is to provide clear and full coverage of new developments and applications in the field.
Areas such as x-ray microlithography, x-ray astronomy and medical x-ray imaging as well as new technologies arising from fields traditionally considered unrelated to x rays (semiconductor processing, accelerator technology, ionizing and non-ionizing medical diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, etc.) present opportunities for research that can meet new challenges as they arise.
Abstract: Computed tomography (CT) is most commonly used as a noninvasive approach in diagnosis of internal organ injures. Use of multi-slice spiral CT becomes more popular in diagnosis of trauma because of its ability to generate 3D volumetric information. This study evaluated the diagnostic value of multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) with enhanced scanning in renal trauma. In total, 126 patients with kidney injury underwent MSCT scanning from a single hospital in the southern of China between January 2012 and February 2016. According to kidney injury grading standards of American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST), 30 were diagnosed and…classified in level I, 26 in level II, 42 in level III, 17 in level IV, 11 in level V. The outcomes of MSCT enhanced scanning achieve a 100% diagnostic accuracy rate, which was confirmed by surgical findings. We concluded that the enhanced MSCT scan permits reliable detection of renal trauma and the associated organ or tissue injuries, providing important clinical value for the diagnosis and classification of renal trauma or internal organ injures.
Abstract: Ectopic insertion of the ureter in the genitourinary tract is a rare congenital disorder, usually associated with ureteral duplication. Identification of the insertion open is critical for ureteric re-implantation. However, the challenge in the diagnosis of ectopic insertion of the ureter usually is to identify its insertion, particularly when the affected ureter is not dilated. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) urography with nonionic iodinated contrast media delineates the ureteric course in the normal functioning kidney in the excretory phase [1 ]. This report presented a young male patient with ectopic insertion of a duplicated ureter diagnosed by MDCT urography. Three-dimensional (3D)…analysis technology, such as volume rendering (with a color display improving the visualization of complex anatomy and 3D relationships) and maximum intensity projection (similar in principle to projection angiography), is useful for the illustration of urinary tract anatomy [1 ]. Rotated volume rendering reconstruction images and continual thinner maximum intensity projection reformatted images can be viewed as videos, which provides detail delineation of the ectopic ureteral insertion and its associated ureteral duplication. In this study, we reported MDCT urography and 3D analysis technology as an appropriate diagnostic method for the ectopic ureteral insertion and its associated complications.
Abstract: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an extremely rare disease caused by a cancerous growth in the adrenal cortex. Although most of adrenal tumors are benign, the functional ACC is malignant resulting in endocrine dysfunction and necessitates surgical removal. Retroperitoneal laparoscope adrenalectomy is often used to perform adrenal gland surgery. Here, we reported a case of huge ACC with the size of 6.8 cm × 5.2 cm. To achieve better surgical outcome, we integrated 3D reconstructed CT images into a dynamic video for preoperative planning and intraoperative guiding to resect the diseased adrenal gland completely without neighbor organ’s injury and surgery complications.…Moreover, we reviewed associated applications using 3D reconstructed CT imaging in surgery field. Finally, the evaluation and effect of such technology were discussed to reveal that the 3D dynamic video can help surgeon to make better preoperative assessment so as to give patients better therapy.
Abstract: Dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a new approach in diagnosis and predication of various dental diseases, including trauma, congenital defects, tumors and inflammatory. In this study, we reported the outcome of CBCT for a complicated case of malocclusion, accompanied with tooth loss and periodontitis. A combined application of CBCT with 3D-static images and rotated reconstruction images is reviewed as a systematic model in diagnosis, treatment and progonsis of a complex malocclusion.
Keywords: CBCT, 3D reconstructions images, dental medicine application, malocclusion
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Magnification mammography is performed to enhance the visibility of small structures at the expense of relatively high radiation dose as a complementary examination to standard mammography. The introduction of post-processing capabilities and the widespread use of digital mammography has promoted some controversy in the last decade on whether similar visibility can be achieved using electronic zoom. The aim of this study is to compare the visibility of small structures in images obtained by the two techniques stated above for different exposure conditions. METHODS: Images of a Fluke Biomedical Model 18–220 Mammography Accreditation Phantom were obtained using…standard techniques and geometric magnification, using a digital mammography unit, with different exposure factors. Three different target/filter combinations (Mo/Mo,Mo/Rh,Rh/Rh), variable kVp (26–32), and automatic exposure control were used. Images obtained using standard technique were electronically zoomed and compared to the corresponding magnification mammograms. Comparisons were based on the visibility of structures evaluated by five senior technologist with extensive experience in mammography. Statistical analysis was performed using non-parametric tests. RESULTS: Visibility of structures was not affected by the kV used for a given target/filter combination for both techniques (p > 0.065). Target/filter combination of Mo/Mo provided better visibility of micro-calcification and fibers (p < 0.026) in geometric magnification technique and Mo/Rh in the digital zoom technique. No significant differences were observed in the visibility of simulated breast masses. The overall image score was significantly higher (p < 0.001) for geometric magnification over the digital zoom for Mo/Mo & Rh/Rh combinations. CONCLUSION: Although sufficient image quality was maintained in electronically zoomed images, geometric magnification provided better overall visualization of structures in the phantom.
Keywords: Digital mammography, electronic magnification mammography, geometric magnification mammography
Abstract: X-ray computed tomography is an established volume imaging technique used routinely in medical diagnosis, industrial non-destructive testing, and a wide range of scientific fields. Traditionally, computed tomography uses scanning geometries with a single axis of rotation together with reconstruction algorithms specifically designed for this setup. Recently there has however been increasing interest in more complex scanning geometries. These include so called X-ray computed laminography systems capable of imaging specimens with large lateral dimensions or large aspect ratios, neither of which are well suited to conventional CT scanning procedures. Developments throughout this field have thus been rapid, including the introduction of…novel system trajectories, the application and refinement of various reconstruction methods, and the use of recently developed computational hardware and software techniques to accelerate reconstruction times. Here we examine the advances made in the last several years and consider their impact on the state of the art.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful tool that provides useful quantitative information on physiological and biochemical processes. However, the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in short dynamic frames is a challenge. OBJECTIVE: To get high SNR in the dynamic PET and to achieve high-quality PET parametric image are the objective of this study. METHODS: Low-rank (LR) modeling and edge-preserving prior are incorporated in this study with a unified mathematical framework to improve the SNR of a dynamic PET image series. The proposed algorithm is designed to reduce noise in homogeneous areas while preserving…the edges of regions of interest. RESULTS: The performance of the proposed method (LRH) is compared both visually and quantitatively by using the classic Gaussian filter and an LR expression filter on a digital brain phantom and in vivo rat study. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed filter can achieve superior visual and quantitative performance without sacrificing spatial resolution. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed LRH is considerably effective and exhibits great potential in processing dynamic PET data with high noise levels.
Abstract: Due to the increased cone beam coverage and the introduction of flat panel detector, the size of X-ray illumination fields has grown dramatically in Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT), causing an increase in scatter radiation. Existing reconstruction algorithms do not model the scatter radiation, so scatter artifacts appear in the reconstruction images. The contribution of scattering of photons inside the detector itself becomes prominent and challenging in case of X-ray source of high energy (over a few 100 keV) which is used in typical industrial Non Destructive Testing (NDT). In this paper, comprehensive evaluation of contribution of detector scatter is…performed using continuously thickness-adapted kernels. A separation of scatter due to object and the detector is presented using a four-Gaussian model. The results obtained prove that the scatter correction only due to the object is not sufficient to obtain reconstruction image free from artifacts as the detector also scatters considerably. The obtained results are also validated experimentally using a collimator to remove the contribution of object scatter.
Abstract: The optimization-based method that utilizes the additional sparse prior of region-of-interest (ROI) image, such as total variation, has been the subject of considerable research in problems of interior tomography reconstruction. One challenge for optimization-based iterative ROI image reconstruction is to build the relationship between ROI image and truncated projection data. When the reconstruction support region is smaller than the original object, an unsuitable representation of data fidelity may lead to bright truncation artifacts in the boundary region of field of view. In this work, we aim to develop an iterative reconstruction method to suppress the truncation artifacts and improve the…image quality for direct ROI image reconstruction. A novel reconstruction approach is proposed based on an optimization problem involving a two-step filtering-based data fidelity. Data filtering is achieved in two steps: the first takes the derivative of projection data; in the second step, Hilbert filtering is applied in the differentiated data. Numerical simulations and real data reconstructions have been conducted to validate the new reconstruction method. Both qualitative and quantitative results indicate that, as theoretically expected, the proposed method brings reasonable performance in suppressing truncation artifacts and preserving detailed features. The presented local reconstruction method based on the two-step filtering strategy provides a simple and efficient approach for the iterative reconstruction from truncated projections.
Abstract: An ultrasonic image speckle noise removal method by using total least squares model is proposed and applied onto images of cardiovascular structures such as the carotid artery. On the basis of the least squares principle, the related principle of minimum square method is applied to cardiac ultrasound image speckle noise removal process to establish the model of total least squares, orthogonal projection transformation processing is utilized for the output of the model, and the denoising processing for the cardiac ultrasound image speckle noise is realized. Experimental results show that the improved algorithm can greatly improve the resolution of the image,…and meet the needs of clinical medical diagnosis and treatment of the cardiovascular system for the head and neck. Furthermore, the success in imaging of carotid arteries has strong implications in neurological complications such as stroke.
Keywords: Ultrasound images, image processing, speckle noise, total least squares, carotid artery
Abstract: Assess the effects of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α ) in enhancing the radiosensitivity of esophageal cancer cell line in vitro . Three esophageal cancer cell line cells were exposed to X-ray with or without TNF-α treatment. MTT assay was used to evaluate the cell growth curve, and flow cytometry was performed to assess the cell apoptosis. The radiosensitizing effects of TNF-α were detected by cell colony formation assay. Western blotting was applied to observe the expression of NF-κ B and caspase-3 protein in the exposed cells. Our results indicated that cellular inhibition rate increased over time, the…strongest is combined group (P < 0.05). Western blotting showed that the decline expression of NF-κ B protein was stated between only rhTNF-α and only X-ray radiation group and the maximum degree was manifested in combined group. Caspase-3 protein content expression just works opposite. Three kinds of cells in the NF-κ B protein were similar without rhTNF-α . Then SEG1 NF-κ B protein content was reduced more than other two kinds. We concluded that the cells treated with TNF-α showed significantly suppressed cell proliferation, increasing the cell apoptosis, and caspase-3 protein expression after X-ray exposure. TNF-α can enhance the radiosensitivity of esophageal cancer to enhancing the effect of the former.
Keywords: Tumor necrosis factor-α, radiation-sensitizing agents, rhTNF-α, esophageal cancer