Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation - Volume 4, issue 4
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Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation will provide a forum for discussion and dissemination of information about the major areas that constitute vocational rehabilitation.
Periodically, there will be topics that are directed either to specific themes such as long-term care or different disability groups such as those with psychiatric impairment. Often a guest editor who is an expert in the given area will provide leadership on a specific topic issue. However, all articles received directly or submitted for a special issue are welcome for peer review. The emphasis will be on publishing rehabilitation articles that have immediate application for helping rehabilitation counselors, psychologists and other professionals in providing direct services to people with disabilities.
Original research articles, review articles, program descriptions, and case studies will be considered for publication. Ideas for special topical issues are welcomed as well.
Abstract: Community-based supported employment programs, as an alternative to traditional facility-based day programs, have changed the nature of vocational services for adults with mental retardation. Numerous demonstrations over the past two decades have unequivocally documented the employment potential of people with mental retardation. Despite these accomplishments, problems persist that may threaten the ultimate effectiveness of the program. In this article a national agenda for supported employment is delineated. Emphasis is placed on expanding the number of individuals in supported employment, promoting consumer choice, implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act, converting segregated day programs, and expanding the number of qualified personnel.
Keywords: Supported employment, Rehabilitation, Empowerment, Mental retardation, Strategic plan
Abstract: The Arc believes that the vast majority of people with mental retardation can be employed. With new knowledge and technology, even more people with mental retardation will be considered employable. In addition, with appropriate education, training, and support, these workers can be fully integrated into settings where they will receive equitable wages and benefits, including retirement programs for work performed. They will, therefore, contribute to their own independence and to the value of their community (The Arc, 1990).
Abstract: Current research on the conversion of segregated rahabilitation facilites to integrated job training is reviewed. These research data reveal that rehabilitation programs have primarily utilized supported employment as an “add on” to facility-based services. The data also indicate that individuals receiving supported employment through rehabilitation programs are comparable to the overall population receiving these services. Although data on the benefits of the transition from sheltered to integrated employment for individuals with disabilities are sparse, those studies which exist suggest positive changes. Much more research is needed on the degree of implementation of supported employment in conversion and the variables that…influence this implementation. Existing research also suggests that more attention be given to fostering organizational change and evaluating quality of life for participants in developing conversion program plans.
Keywords: Conversion, Rehabilitation facilities, Supported employment, Community integration, Community job training, Sheltered workshops
Abstract: This article descn'bes the use of positive behavioral support in the workplace for an individual with severe mental retardation and chronic job-threatening behaviors. Multiple interventions, including differential reinforcement, permanent prompts, and coworker support were used in an AB design for two unappealing behaviors, inappropriate nose wiping and loud snorting noises. Coworker and supervisor assessments of behavioral change were far more positive than the data indicate, likely because of the effect of renewed social contact on perceptions of the individual and his behaviors.
Keywords: Severe mental retardation, Behavior management, Employment, Vocational rehabilitation
Abstract: Some students with severe disabilities have difficulty making the transition from school to employment because of interfering challenging behaviors. Teachers often are hesitant to involve them in community-based vocational instruction, fearing that employers will not be receptive to providing these students with job site experiences. The use of a changing criterion design and reinforcement to increase time on the work site may be one way to facilitate student participation while minimizing challenging behaviors. This article discusses the use of the single-subject design strategy to facilitate one student's ability to participate in community-based vocational instruction.
Abstract: A content analysis of business literature pertaining to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was conducted. Using two CD ROM data bases, journal articles dating from November 1989 through October 1993 were accessed. The breadth of the search allowed for a look at the evolution of opinions and ideas presented in business journals from a speculative period before the law was enacted through a period in which compliance was the central issue. Articles were content analyzed to ascertain the following: (1) general information such as date, title, and author; (2) context of the ADA topic; (3) titles of the ADA…discussed in the article (e. g., telecommunication, employment); (4) type of content (e. g., knowledge, application, or opinion); and (5) target audience of the journal. Results of the study indicated that business journals did address the ADA primarily as a main theme with regard to employment. Further, the majority of articles were knowledge based and targeted a variety of audiences. Virtually no articles were found that centered specifically on the ADA and individuals with mental retardation. Results of the study are discussed in reference to the implications for individuals with mental retardation and other disabilities.
Keywords: Mental retardation, ADA, Business communication, Legislation
Abstract: The implementation of supported employment has focused on the skill requirements of front-line staff in relation to job development and on-site instructional technique. However, the commitment to community inclusion requires organizations to rethink their administrative structures and operations. Agencies must create open and reciprocal relationships with staff, as well as with typical community members and entities in order to facilitate the growth of natural supports for individuals with severe disabilities. Rehabilitation managers must take a leadership role in their agencies and in the larger community to move beyond the traditional service delivery resource limits of human service agencies.
Abstract: Beyond the Workshop, a recently issued monograph by the Institute for Community Inclusion from a survey of sampled vocational service agencies, projects numbers of supported employment participants and provider agencies that far exceed those reported by national surveys of state systems by the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Supported Employment. This article discusses methodological and definitional issues regarding these discrepancies.