Journal of Cellular Biotechnology - Volume 1, issue 2
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Journal of Cellular Biotechnology is a peer-reviewed international journal for advancing research activities in the field of cellular biotechnology. It serves as a medium for the publication of full papers, invited reviews, short communications, technical notes and letters to the Editor-in-Chief on all aspects of cellular biotechnology. This comprises molecular biological topics covering biochemical, chemical, pharmacological or bioprocess engineering aspects, as well as the development of novel biomaterials. Therefore, cellular biotechnology differs from biology, biochemistry, and other basic life sciences by its emphasis on using the knowledge of bioscience to solve important practical problems. Papers presenting information of a multidisciplinary nature - not suitable for publication in a journal devoted to a single discipline - are particularly welcome.
Manuscripts submitted for the
Journal of Cellular Biotechnology are expected to cover activities related to molecular diagnostics, the expansion of human primary cells for individualized therapies or drug testing, 2- and 3-dimensional co-culture techniques, cell line validation, tissue engineering, and stem cell biology for the treatment of human pathologies. This includes studies on the design of reactors and research on cellular biology and physiology of mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo, and tissue. Of special interest is the rational manipulation of reactions through metabolic engineering techniques or specific reactor operations that lead to biomaterials with unique properties. Also, biochemical and physiological studies of metabolism and enzymes as relevant for tissue culture cells, investigations at the molecular level including transcription/translation control; design and engineering of products by molecular strategies; engineering of cellular modification and transport systems such as post-translational protein modifications as well as protein and metabolite secretion; molecular strategies of screening for new or modified products (e.g. pharmaceuticals or bioactive compounds). In addition, investigations in preclinical animal experiments are welcome.
The endeavour of the Editor-in-Chief and publisher of the
Journal of Cellular Biotechnology is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to cell-cell or cell-material interactions all over the world. The editorial board members of the
Journal of Cellular Biotechnology are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in cellular biotechnology is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He/she is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Abstract: In the era of increasing usage of materials, there is a growing concern of environmental aspects. This has motivated many scientists to research on greener materials and technologies. In this line, several biodegradable materials and biomolecules-based technologies have been developed in the recent years. This has triggered vivacious participation of various biomolecules such as DNA, proteins, enzymes, and cells in the field of ‘materials’. Among the various biomolecules, enzymes have gained a significant position due to their applications in numerous fields including nanoparticles synthesis, polymer degradation, enzymatic lithography, biosensing and bio-fuel cells. This mini-review accounts on recent trends in selective…fields such as nanoparticles synthesis, enzymatic polymer degradation and enzymatic lithography.
Abstract: Within the hemocompatibility testing portfolio of medical devices a range of dynamic models were established in recent years. In contrast to the static hemocompatibility testing method the dynamic models allow considering the impact of hemorheological and hemodynamic blood characteristics on the hemocompatibility of medical devices. Unfortunately the EN DIN ISO 10993-4 for the biological evaluation of medical devices for interaction with blood gives no hints towards the period of time during which the medical devices should be exposed to the blood in these tests. To examine whether different exposure times impact the comparability of hemocompatibility test results low density polyethylene…(LD-PE) tubes and nitinol stents were tested exemplarily in a closed loop model for changes of the fibrinogen content, the prothrombin time, the thrombin time, and the C5a activity after 30 and 90 min exposure to the blood. Low density polyethylene was used as negative control because it is one of the European reference materials for hemocompatibility testing. After 90 min blood exposure to the LD-PE tubing and the nitinol stents the prothrombin time was significantly longer and the fibrinogen content significantly lower (p < 0.05) than after 30 min. In contrast the thrombin time and the C5a were comparable after 30 and 90 min blood exposure time. These results might recommend to an initial 30 min exposure time, which is followed by a 90 min exposure time in cases of unclear results.
Abstract: In consequence of limitation of capillary dilatation reserve the role of erythrocyte membrane elasticity and their microrheological properties is very important for the tissue perfusion. The drugs that enter blood flow could be as signaling molecules and their action can lead to alteration of red blood cell aggregation and whole cell deformability. Therefore the subject of this study was to estimate the effect of some antitumor chemotherapy drugs on red blood cell aggregation (RBCA) and deformability (RBCD). It was found that an exposure of red blood cells (RBCs) to cisplatin and epoetin alfa led to significant positive changes in the…RBC microrheological properties. It was shown that cisplatin could activate tyrosine protein kinase (TPK). Preincubation of RBCs with the inhibitor of EGF-R and Src kinase lavendustin A was accompanied by a significant decrease of the cisplatin effect. It was found RBC aggregation rise after cell incubation with 5-fluorouracil. This effect was removed with Ca2+ chelation with EGTA and also with pentoxifylline. The drug for the targeted antitumor therapy sunitinib raised RBCA markedly. Whereas RBC deformability index was altered only slightly. The combination of two chemicals: sunitinib and cisplatin led to an elimination of proaggregative effect of sunitinib. Examination of the effects of some antitumor drugs on red blood cell microrheological properties has enabled us to suggest that the observed changes in red cell aggregation and deformability may be partly related to the effects of tyrosine protein kinase activation. It is accompanied by the alteration of red blood cell microrheology and the blood transport efficacy.
Abstract: In this study, diameter and length of cervical vessels in minipigs of different ages were examined with respect to either prone or supine positioning. In addition, age related changes were established, since scanning of vessels was carried out at different stages of growth. Due to their early maturity, minipigs are used frequently as animal models for surgery or vascular interventions. To gain open access to cervical vessels the animals have to be in supine position. Since this does not correspond to a physiological position, changes in vessel length and inner diameter were measured. The results were compared to vessel length…and diameter in the prone position, which represents the physiological position. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) was used for examination, which allowed for describing these changes in vivo without compromising the physiological pressure and condition. Significant changes could not be observed in the arterial system. However, the venous system showed significant changes (p < 0.05) in both vessel diameter and length. Moreover, results showed that development of the cervical vascular system is completed, when the minipigs are 17 months old.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: It has been demonstrated by in vitro experiments using inhibitors that CD40L is cleaved from the surface of activated platelets by matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP). Additionally, after granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) activation of peripheral stem cell donors a MMP elevation is induced, and stem cell products contain a considerable amount of platelets. Therefore stem cell donations (peripheral stem cell apheresis (PBSC) as well as bone marrow (BM) donation) were used as an in vivo model to observe alterations of the sCD40L release kinetic and its effects on the respective stem cell products. MATERIAL AND METHODS:…The study included twelve healthy stem cell donors (PBSC n = 6, BM n = 6). sCD40L concentrations, relative MMP activities and blood cell compositions were determined in peripheral blood as well as in the respective stem cell products before, during and after donation and/or during cell product storage. RESULTS: In stem cell products, sCD40L concentrations were manifold elevated (range from 1121 to 4123 pg/mL) in comparison to concentrations of peripheral blood samples (range from 39 to 334 pg/mL). Dependent on storage duration a sCD40L accumulation in the products could be observed. MMP concentrations were elevated by GCSF stimulation and resulted in an about 2-fold increase of sCD40L release kinetic. In parallel, MMP concentrations were increased in the stem cell products (PBSC as well as BM products). In the peripheral blood of PBSC donors, the sCD40L concentration decreased after apheresis in correlation to a decrease in platelet count. CONCLUSION: As known from platelet concentrates, an accumulation of sCD40L could also be observed in stem cell products pointing out the importance of sCD40L release by platelets. Stem cell products showed elevated MMP concentrations compared to peripheral blood and additionally during stem cell apheresis, sCD40L release kinetic is accelerated by MMP elevation.
Abstract: Radiographic contrast media are able to induce changes of the morphology of erythrocytes and endothelial cells. Particularly, the change of the erythrocyte morphology is associated with a decreased deformability possibly resulting from disintegration and a loss of constituents of the membrane cytoskeleton. However, it is unclear whether there is an intravascular hemolysis as a consequence of the disintegration of the erythrocyte membrane cytoskeleton which might more or less coincide with a loss of erythrocyte membrane integrity. The results of this study showed, that free hemoglobin increased from 14.2 ± 5.1 mg/dl to 17.9 ± 9.8 mg/dl after Iobitridol application (p… = 0.089), while it slightly decreased from 21.5 ± 10.9 mg/dl to 19.0 ± 12.9 mg/dl after Iodixanol application (p = 0.289). The slight decrease of free hemoglobin after application of Iodixanol differed significantly compared to the increase of free hemoglobin after Iobitridol application (p < 0.05). This different reponse is thought to give evidence to the assumption that the erythrocyte membrane integrity, in deed, was compromised leading to the release of free hemoglobin as an indicator of hemolysis as well.
Abstract: Chronic alcohol abuse is the leading cause of liver cirrhosis in western countries. Ethanol, even at lower concentrations, can cause pleiotropic effects at the cellular level such as the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage. Ethanol is oxidized to acetaldehyde by liver alcohol dehydrogenase and by a microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system which is dependent on CYP2E1. There are numerous reports on CYP2E1-mediated formation of ROS. These lower the levels of intracellular glutathione, an efficient antioxidant. We were interested to investigate ethanol effects on glutathione levels independent of CYP2E1. We chose human hepatoma cell line HepG2 as a model…known to lack physiological CYP2E1 expression. We found that 40 mM ethanol, a dosage comparable to blood ethanol concentration after heavy alcohol drinking, reduced intracellular HepG2 glutathione levels only by 18%. Within 24 hours, this effect could be normalized by the glutathione regeneration system. When HepG2 cells were exposed to 40 mM ethanol for one week, the cells gradually lost their ability to regenerate intracellular glutathione stores. We conclude that chronic ethanol exposure has a substantial effect on the glutathione regeneration capacity in liver cells which might contribute to alcohol-induced liver disease.
Abstract: Recent years have brought about substantial advances in nanomedical approaches to human diseases. Novel therapeutic and diagnostic nanoparticulate agents can be delivered via several routes, including enteral, transdermal, inhalational, as well as parenteral application. For nanoparticles administered via intravascular route, endothelial cells represent the first-contact cells and their responses to the candidate nanosystems should be considered before clinical applications. Additionally, a number of drug-delivery nanosystems that target endothelium are currently proposed. It is increasingly evident that the future progress in the treatment of many human maladies, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer, will be closely bound with the development of endothelium-targeting…nanosystems. As endothelial cells in circulation are constantly exposed to shear stress, investigating nanoparticle-endothelial interactions under flow conditions is necessary to estimate the cell responses in physiological-like settings. This mini-review focuses on the recently reported studies assessing the uptake of circulating nanoparticles and their biological effects on endothelial cells, and summarizes the targeting approaches to enhance endothelial internalization of nanoparticles under flow conditions.