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The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the gut microbiota is required for the chemoprotective effects of black raspberries (BRBs) in ApcMin /+ mice. METHODS: ApcMin /+ mice were given (a) a control diet for 8 weeks, or (b) the control diet for 4 weeks and then a 5% BRB diet for additional 4 weeks, or (c) the control diet and antibiotics for 4 weeks followed by the 5% BRB diet and antibiotics for the next 4…weeks. At the end of the study, all the mice were euthanized, and colonic and intestinal polyps were counted. mRNA expression levels of TLR4 , NF- κ B1 , and COX2 were determined in colon and small intestine of these ApcMin /+ mice by quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: 5% BRBs significantly suppressed intestinal and colonic polyp development in the ApcMin /+ mice, whereas antibiotics significantly abolished BRBs’ chemoprotective effects. BRBs decreased mRNA levels of TLR4 , NF- κ B1 , and COX2 in colon, whereas significantly enhanced mRNA levels of TLR4 and NF- κ B1 were observed in small intestine of BRB-treated ApcMin /+ mice fed antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: The gut microbiota is required for BRBs’ chemoprotection against polyp development in ApcMin /+ mice.
Keywords: Black raspberries, ApcMin/+, antibiotics, TLR4, NF-κ B, COX2
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Vaccinium meridionale is an Andean Berry that contains bioactive compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can prevent oxidative and pro-inflammatory events associated with colorectal carcinogenesis initiation. OBJECTIVE: Determine if Andean Berry Juice (ABJ) can improve plasma antioxidant capacity and reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines of healthy people with dietary factors for colorectal cancer. METHODS: Nineteen healthy volunteers received 250 mL of ABJ for 14 days. Plasma was obtained before and after the intervention period to analyze antioxidant status through ABTS and isoprostane methods, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 cytokines and total phenolic content were also analyzed by…colorimetric methods. RESULTS: Plasma antioxidant capacity increased (0.222 to 0.555 mM Trolox, p ≤0.0001) and isoprostane levels were significantly reduced (264 pg/mL to 197 pg/mL) and positively correlated with the total antioxidant capacity (r = 0.037) after juice consumption, whereas total phenol content decreased (7.08 to 7.04 mg gallic acid equivalent/L, p ≤0.0249) at the end of intervention. Plasma IL-6 levels were significantly reduced (p = 0.0230), while IL-1β and TNFα did not show changes after juice intake. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that ABJ daily intake improves plasma antioxidant capacity and reduces levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 associated with colorectal carcinogenesis.
Keywords: Vaccinium meridionale, phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, pro-inflammatory cytokine, human colon cancer
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Large epidemiological studies have shown that diets high in fruits reduce the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated the effects of black raspberries (BRBs) on gene expression during the development of preneoplastic esophagi in rats. METHODS: Using a post-initiation protocol, F344 rats were injected with N -nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA) and then fed either a control diet or 5% BRBs. At weeks 9, 15, and 35, we euthanized subgroups of the rats and collected preneoplastic esophagi to isolate RNA samples for DNA microarray. RESULTS: Along…the development of NMBA-induced preneoplastic esophagi, NMBA injections led to differential expression of 1181 genes comparing to control rats, and dietary BRBs modulated 428 genes in esophagi from NMBA-treated rats. There are 137 common genes between 1181 and 428 gene sets, and BRBs significantly reversed the expression of 133 genes. These genes are associated with multiple gene oncology functions. BRBs induced an 8.8-fold gene enrichment on the pathway of inflammatory response and regulated 10 genes involved in this pathway. Among them, BRBs significantly reversed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as CCL2 , S100A8 , and IL19 . CONCLUSIONS: BRBs exhibit strong anti-inflammatory effects against NMBA-induced rat esophageal tumorigenesis.
Keywords: Black raspberries, rat preneoplastic esophagi, NMBA, DNA microarray, inflammatory response
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anthocyanins, flavonoids and organic acids widely occurring in extracts of the fruits of Aristotelia chilensis (“Maqui”), concertedly acts on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), NF-κ B, HT-29 and Caco-2 colon cancer cell growth inhibition and on the production of inflammatory mediators. OBJECTIVE: To assess the anti-inflammatory effects of extracts from fruits of “Maqui Berry”, on the HT-29 and Caco-2 human colorectal cancer cell lines by measuring COX-2 and NF-κ B as well as their antioxidant activities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Methanol/water extracts and its partitions (acetone and ethyl acetate) from three varieties of “Maqui” were…used to access their effects on growth of HT-29 and Caco-2 colon cancer cells, COX-2, NF-κ B, NO formation, oxidations by DPPH, TBARS, FRAP and ORAC. RESULTS: Fractions rich in anthocyanins, exhibited potent chemoprotective abilities on decreasing growth of HT-29 and Caco-2 colon cancer cells. The results indicated that the extracts suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO), through the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS). The structural features of the extracts correlate with the inhibition of NF-κ B and COX-2 protein expressions and a potent antioxidant activity by assays of DPPH, FRAP, TBARS and ORAC. The inhibition of cell growth and NO production by selected extracts was dose-dependent with significant effects seen at concentration as low as 25.0 and 10.0 ppm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The phenolics (anthocyanins, flavonoids, and organic acids) that occur in extracts from Maqui berry Aristotelia chilensis may provide therapeutic potential against colon cancer.
Abstract: Black raspberries (BRB) have been shown to inhibit the progression of a number of cancers including breast, esophageal, colon, and oral cancers both in preclinical models. These results have led to further clinical evaluation for the use of BRB in the prevention of cancer onset in high risk populations as well as preventing its further progression. However, the use of BRB as a cancer therapy can be challenging due to variability in nutritional content of BRB lots and differences in patient metabolism of the active BRB components. Thus, the preparation of fractions possessing enriched amounts of the active constituents of…BRB may improve patients’ access to the anti-cancer benefits afforded by BRB, and ultimately improve clinical outcomes. These components of BRB include anthocyanins, protocatechuic acid, quercetin, ellagic acid, all of which have exhibited anti-cancer properties. Which treatment modality and its method of delivery is most efficacious in the context of cancer therapy has yet to be definitively realized. Improvements in BRB fractionation as well as enhanced delivery of these BRB components to target tissues off promising results. Together these advancements may improve their efficacy as cancer therapeutics, and thus allow for more treatment modalities in cancer therapy.
Keywords: Cancer prevention, black raspberry, anthocyanins, protocatechuic acid, human clinical trial
Abstract: Breast cancer (BC) encompasses a collection of different diseases characterized by different biological and pathological features, clinical presentations, responses to treatments, clinical behaviors and outcomes. BC remains the most prevalent cancer type among women globally with over 2 million new cases in 2018. Major treatment strategies for BC consist of radiotherapy, surgery and chemotherapy, either separately or in combination. However, bioactive compounds present in fruits and vegetables have been demonstrated to exert multiple anti-tumoral effects, such as inhibition of cell proliferation, modulation of cell signaling pathways and gene expressions and induction of apoptosis. Accordingly, berries are gaining increasing attentions for…their chemopreventive and therapeutic potential against several cancers, including BC. Their composition includes dietary fiber, organic acids, certain minerals in trace amounts, some vitamins and phytochemicals (such as, phenolic compounds). All of these components, individually or combined, are associated with their antioxidant properties and responsible for their health benefits. Therefore, the aim of this review is to discuss the recent evidence, obtained from in vitro , in vivo and human studies, on the potential roles exerted by different phenolic compounds or different phenolic extracts from berries in the prevention of BC progression.