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The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Multiple oxidants oxidize biological molecules in vivo to induce their non-regulated oxidative modification and consequently antioxidants against multiple oxidants are required to cope with oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE: To determine the antioxidant capacity of blueberry extracts for peroxyl radical scavenging and inhibition of plasma lipid oxidation induced by peroxyl radical, peroxynitrite, hypochlorite, 15-lipoxygenase, and singlet oxygen. METHODS: The capacity of blueberry extracts to scavenge peroxyl radical was assessed by competition with pyranine. Mouse plasma was oxidized by the above-mentioned oxidants and the lipid hydroperoxide formation was measured by the fluorescence intensity of diphenylpyrenylphosphine (DPPP) oxide…produced by the stoichiometric reaction of lipid hydroperoxides and DPPP. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by the effects on DPPP oxide formation. RESULTS: Blueberry extracts by water and DMSO exerted potent antioxidant effects for scavenging peroxyl radicals and inhibition of plasma lipid oxidation induced by biologically relevant multiple oxidants. Blueberry skin was more effective than fruit and DMSO extracts were more potent than water extracts. CONCLUSIONS: Blueberry contains multiple antioxidants, which inhibit plasma lipid oxidation induced by diverse oxidants. The present methods may be applied for the assessment of antioxidant capacity of foods, beverages, and synthetic compounds.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The distribution of bioactive compounds within a fruit is not homogenous. A better understanding of the developmental profile of the taste-related and bioactive compounds within different fruit tissues will be useful. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterise the evolution of the taste-related and bioactive compounds in the internal and external tissues during stages of ripening strawberry fruits. METHODS: Taste-related compounds were analysed using refractometric and titrational methods. Phenolics was analysed using LC-MS. HPLC-UV was used to identify and quantify the levels of individual compounds. Antioxidant capacity and anthocyanins were determined photometrically.…RESULTS: The perception of the taste could be attributed to the internal tissues. Regarding the bioactive compound contents, polyphenol compounds were present from the initial stage of fruit development. Among them, pelargonidin derivatives contributed to the antioxidant capacity only after the fruit had reached the 50%-red stage. They first accumulated in the external tissues and only later accumulated in the internal tissues. Ellagitannins were initially present in both tissues suggesting their antioxidant capacity contribution throughout the fruit ripening stages. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated significant differences in the accumulation processes of bioactive compounds in the internal and the external layers of strawberry fruits.
Keywords: Strawberries, phenols, anthocyanins, antioxidants, fruit tissue, ripening stage
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The strawberry is an important commodity as well as a model plant species in the Rosaceae. DNA marker availability for various traits in octoploid cultivated strawberry has increased intensely in recent years. To date, laborious and expensive DNA extraction procedures have been required to achieve sufficient DNA quality in this recalcitrant species. When combined with gel-based marker systems, current genotyping methods are becoming a bottleneck for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in large strawberry breeding populations. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this work was to develop a high-throughput marker system that combines 1) rapid DNA extraction and 2) rapid,…cost-effective, and accurate genotyping, even when using crude strawberry DNA extracts. To this end, we aimed to develop high-throughput high-resolution melting (HRM) and SSR assays for selection at the FaFAD1 locus conferring peach-like aroma (γ -decalactone). METHODS: Eight cultivars and four advanced selections of strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne) were used in this study. A rapid DNA extraction method from strawberry leaf discs was developed by modifying a previously published NaOH-based method. Three high-throughput HRM markers were developed for detecting the presence/absence of FaFAD1 , and HRM analysis was performed using a Roche LightCycler 480. RESULTS: Rapid NaOH-based DNA extraction was successful for accurate and repeatable marker screening when diluted 5-fold prior to PCR and when non-acetylated BSA and PVP were added to the PCR reaction. Three HRM markers were successfully developed and used to detect the presence/absence of FaFAD1 , with equivalent results to those obtained using the previously published gel-based marker. CONCLUSIONS: This high-throughput genotyping system has been successfully employed to screen approximately 6,000 seedlings in the University of Florida strawberry breeding program, and the method is being expanded for MAS at additional loci. The system should be adaptable to other berry crops for which fast DNA extraction, and low-cost and accurate genotyping are needed for large breeding populations.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Listeria monocytogenes represents high risk for consumers, since it can grow under refrigeration and acidic environments by developing acid tolerance response (ATR). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to study the growth and survival of ATR L. monocytogenes strain Scott A in media acidified with malic acid, lactic acid, or blueberry extract. METHODS: Bacterial growth was evaluated using tryptic soy broth with yeast extract (TSB+YE) combined with the different acid solutions and incubated at 25°C for 24 h. An optical density system measured growth every 15 minutes for 24 h. RESULTS: Complete…inhibition of L. monocytogenes occurred in presence of treatments including malic acid pH 2.0 and 3.0; lactic acid pH 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0; and with blueberry extract pH 2.0 in the mixture. No growth was observed in treatments under pH 4.5. Turbidity values of media mixed with blueberry extract at pH 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 showed no statistical difference at 18 h and growth media had pH of 6.13, 6.53, and 6.78, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Lactic acid was more effective inhibiting bacterial growth compared to malic acid. Blueberry extract was not effective acidifying the final pH of the TSB+YE solutions, therefore L. monocytogenes survived in media acidified with low pH blueberry extract. Treatments with blueberry extract had the least antibacterial effect in this study.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Goji berries, traditionally used in Chinese medicine, are nowadays gaining popularity in the Western world. The efforts are made to establish their cultivation in Europe. Goji berries might derive from two closely related species: Lycium barbarum and Lycium chinense, however, plant species is rarely stated by commercial suppliers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity and the bioactive compounds profile of fruits from six goji berries cultivars cultivated in Switzerland and to provide their genetic characterisation. METHODS: Goji fruits were cultivated at the experimental field of the Agroscope…Research Center in Wallis, Switzerland. The genetic characterization was carried out by amplifying and sequencing two nuclear genes and one chloroplastic gene. The comparison with L. barbarum and L. chinense obtained from the Conservatory and Botanical Garden of Geneva (CBGG) was made. The profile of carotenoids and polyphenols was analysed using an HPLC-DAD. The antioxidant capacity was determined by ORAC and TEAC assays. RESULTS: DNA sequencing and phylogenetics confirmed that all the cultivars belonged to the Lycium genus. ‘Tibet’, ‘Red Life’, ‘Sweet Lifeberry’, ‘Big Lifeberry’ seemed to be closely related to a L. barbarum , whereas ‘Number One’ segregated closer to L. chinense . The individual Saxon , appeared genetically different from all other cultivars and the L. barbarum and L. chinense individuals from CBGG. Zeaxanthin esters were the predominant carotenoid in all six cultivars. ’Number One’ had the highest content of phenolic compounds such as rutin and ferulic, chlorogenic, caffeic and p -coumaric acid. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirmed the importance of combining the quantification of bioactive compounds with genetic characterisation in the analysis of goji species. The dissimilarity of ‘Number One’ and Saxon from four remaining cultivars investigated in this study was evident from the DNA sequencing and Principal Component Analysis of chemical results.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Seabuckthorn (SBT) leaves are used for extraction of health promoting compounds and product development. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the work was to find out gender differences and seasonal variation in total polyphenol content (TPC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). METHOD: Leaves of six natural population of SBT, which comprised 200 plants (100 males, 100 females) from the trans-Himalaya were harvested, and their methanolic and acetone extracts were studied for TPC and TAC. RESULTS: Males exhibit significantly higher TPC (100.8±23.9 mg GAE/g DW) than females (95.0±23.8 mg GAE/g DW). Similarly, ferric reducing activity was significantly higher…in males (6.5±1.1 Fe2+ mmol/g DW) than females (6.1±1.2 Fe2+ mmol/g DW). Significant increase in TPC was observed in male leaves from July to October followed by a significant decrease in November. However, a trend of increase in TPC upto August and a steady decline thereafter was observed in leaves of female SBT. Similarly a trend of an increasing TAC was observed in both the sexes but female leaves were observed to be on an increasing TAC from July to October. CONCLUSION: Male SBT leaves exhibit higher TPC and TAC than females; October is the best time for harvesting SBT leaves and; SBT leaves contain significantly higher hydrophilic than lipophilic phenolics and antioxidants.