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The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The fungal disease verticillium wilt has been recognized as an obstacle to strawberry production since its initial description in 1931. The full potential of genetic resistance as a solution to this problem has yet to be determined or realized. OBJECTIVE: Our investigations are concerned with defining new sources of resistance to verticillium wilt disease in cultivated and wild strawberry germplasm, and with advancing genetic studies on the basis of resistance/susceptibility. METHODS: We screened 23 diploid, 1 decaploid, and 26 octoploid Fragaria (strawberry) germplasm accessions and cultigens for response to root-dip inoculation with Verticillium dahliae…isolate V1. Pedigree relationships of 10 studied cultigens were examined. Crosses were performed between resistant and susceptible accessions. RESULTS: Variability in inoculation response existed within and between species at diploid and octoploid levels. Very or moderately resistant accessions were found within each of three diploid and three octoploid species. Moderately or very susceptible accessions were documented within F. vesca and each octoploid species. Segregation for resistance/susceptibility was evident in progeny populations. CONCLUSIONS: The verticillium wilt resistance ratings reported here and discussed in relation to prior studies adds to the body of publically available knowledge about sources of wilt resistance and susceptibility in Fragaria germplasm.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) is a major pest of soft fruit and ornamental crops. There is an urgent need to improve control of vine weevil and in particular to provide growers with effective Integrated Pest Management-compatible controls with which to target the adult stage of this pest. One approach would be to exploit the behaviour of adult vine weevil to disseminate spores of an entomopathogenic fungus placed within the crop environment in artificial refuges. To be effective this approach requires that the weevils move through the crop environment and in doing so spread the pathogen from the artificial…refuges. OBJECTIVE: Use passive radio frequency identification (RFID) tags to study the movement of adult vine weevil within crop environments. METHOD: A series of laboratory bioassays were completed in which the effect of attaching RFID tags using a thermoplastic or a cyanoacrylate adhesive on survival and movement, on both horizontal and vertical surfaces, of adult vine weevil was determined. An outdoor field experiment was then completed at Harper Adams University in order to test the potential of this technique for studying vine weevil movement within crop environments. RESULTS: Attaching RFID tags using the thermoplastic adhesive did not result in any weevil deaths over a 21 day period. In contrast, just over half (53%) of the weevils to which the RFID tag was attached using the cyanoacrylate adhesive died over the same period. The mean of weevil horizontal movement speed was significantly slower when an RFID tag was attached using a thermoplastic (1.01 cm/s) or a cyanoacrylate (0.29 cm/s) adhesive compared with untagged weevils (1.83 cm/s). However, weevils that were tagged using the thermoplastic adhesive were significantly faster than weevils tagged using the cyanoacrylate adhesive. Mean vertical movement speed was also significantly slower when weevils were tagged using the thermoplastic adhesive (0.18 cm/s) compared with untagged weevils (0.37 cm/s). Weevils tagged using the cyanoacrylate adhesive were unable to climb vertical surfaces. In the field experiment, weevils moved away from their release points. Nine days after the start of the experiment weevils were on average 3.38 m from their release points indicating a speed of movement of 0.38 m/day. The mean distance of movement from their release points did not increase further during the rest of the experimental period, but remained relatively constant at between 2.50 and 3.28 m. As such, for weevils that remained within the crop environment, there is no evidence of dispersal behaviour,with movement behaviour observed more likely to be driven by resource utilisation. However, not all weevils remained within the crop area. Indeed, 15 (38%) of released weevils and/or RFID tags left the crop area, indicating possible long range dispersal by these individuals or evidence of predation of the weevils. A total of 11 (28%) of the RFID tagged weevils released into the crop were recovered alive and with the tag still attached after 35 days. These weevils were estimated to have moved a distances of between 2.65 and 17.30 m (average distance moved 7.50 m) during this period. These distances are likely to underestimate the distance moved by each weevil as they assume that each weevil took the most direct route between each point and did not move other than this. In total eight of the RFID-tagged weevils moved both along and between rows of strawberry grow-bags. At the start of the experiment the 11 RFID tagged weevils occupied 11 (14%) of the strawberry grow-bags. If these weevils took the most direct route between each position within the crop where they were detected these weevils would have crossed, and potentially laid eggs in, 44 (58%) of the grow-bags during the 35 days of the experiment. If they had taken a more indirect route the weevils could have potentially laid eggs in a higher number of the grow-bags. CONCLUSIONS: Results presented here indicate that RFID tags can be used to study the movement of vine weevil adults within crop environments. However, the weight and size of currently available tags significantly slows the movement of weevils under laboratory conditions and frequency of detection may affect estimates of actual distance moved. Despite this, the rate at which vine weevil dispersed through the strawberry crop was comparable to the speed of movement recorded previously by others when weevils were released into an urban environment. Use of RFID tags also resulted in detection rates far higher than those reported in studies by others using traditional mark-release-recapture techniques. Use of RFID tags in the present study indicates that adult vine weevil have the potential to disperse spores of a suitable entomopathogenic fungus from artificial refuges throughout the crop environment. Use of this technique could also be applied to investigate the effect of other plant protection products as well as the impact of different cropping systems on vine weevil movement and survival.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Tomato, a berry with a high nutritional content, is one of the most important vegetables due to its commercial importance, easy manipulation and rapid production cycle. The application of biodegradable films and coatings as alternative preservation method, provides a protective layer and creates a modified atmosphere in the fruit. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of chitosan-olive oil coatings on the quality of tomatoes cv. Charleston during their storage at 27±1°C and 80% RH. METHODS: According with the treatments, chitosan at 1 and 2% (w/v) in 1% (v/v) of…lactic acid was dissolved by stirring during 2 h at 40°C and then was emulsified with olive oil at 2 and 4% (v/v). RESULTS: Tomatoes coated with chitosan at 2% (w/v) with 2 and 4% (v/v) of olive oil presented the higher weight losses. CONCLUSIONS: Coatings from chitosan-olive oil emulsion delayed the ripening and maintained the firmness of tomatoes cv. Charleston with respect to uncoated fruits during storage, although these coatings did not act as an effective barriers against the weight loss. These results can be helpful for horticulturists and agro-food products distributors, as well as for the postharvest technologists.
Keywords: Chitosan, emulsified coating, olive oil, tomatoes, weight loss
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In Nordic regions the floricane of red raspberries often suffer 20–30% injury from exposures to low temperatures. OBJECTIVE: Implemented methods to improve winter survival of red raspberry. METHODS: We studied from 2011 to 2014 the bending and covering effect of red raspberry floricanes of ‘Glen Ample’, ‘Stiora’ and selection KV91-39-7 on winter injury and yield. Canes were trained to a rotating cross-arm (RCA) trellis system and covered with two layers of polyethylene (Agricover) sheets, and supplemental heat was provided at critical temperatures. RESULTS: Bending plus heating reduced freezing injury of buds for all…cultivars, and tended to increase yield for ‘Stiora’ and KV91-39-7, but not for ‘Glen Ample’. Plots lifted directly to vertical after winter covering yielded more than plots where canes were left horizontal till anthesis and then lifted to vertical. CONCLUSIONS: The experiments show that bending raspberry canes to avoid freezing injury, was possible without much visible cane injury if bending was undertaken carefully using a RCA trellis. However, standard trellising with erect canes improved fruit yield. It was found that a few more cane buds were torn off because of trellising reducing the amount of buds compared to canes in erect position. Additional studies should be undertaken to look at reasons why better cane survival resulted in lower yields.
Keywords: Freezing injury, cultivars, fruit yield, fruit weight, laterals, cane buds
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Haskap berries (Lonicera caerulea L.) are processed into various products (e.g. juice, jam and chutneys). These fruits are rich in bioactive compounds, though losses can occur during frozen storage, affecting the nutritional content of the products. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of freezing storage temperature (–18 and –32°C) and steam blanching prior to freezing on the the total phenolic content (TPC)/total reducing capacity (TRC), total anthocyanin content (TAC) and antioxidant potential of three Haskap berry varieties; Tundra (T), Berry Blue (BB) and Indigo Gem (IG). METHODS: Berries were stored at –18…or –32°C for six months, and analyzed monthly for TPC/TRC, TAC, and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Steam blanching prior to freezing was also evaluated. RESULTS: Frozen storage at –18°C for six months reduced the TPC/TRC by 37.08 to 47.16% . TAC was also reduced, where the highest decrease was for BB (59.24%) followed by IG (46.34%), and DPPH scavenging activity decreased by 26.78 to 30.86% . Blanching prior to freezing improved the retention of bioactive compounds but storage at –32°C did not yield significant improvements. CONCLUSIONS: Steam blanching prior to freezing followed by frozen storage at –18°C is recommended for better retention of the bioactive components of haskap berries.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anthocyanins are natural colorants and bioactive compounds widely distributed among vegetables and fruits. Unfortunately, in fruit juices stored at room temperature monomeric anthocyanins easily convert to colourless compounds and subsequently to insoluble brown pigments. OBJECTIVE: The object of present study is to compare the stability of monomeric anthocyanins and colour changes during storage temperature at 38°C of pasteurized cherry juice, concentrate and freeze-dried juice. METHODS: Colour changes of, pasteurized cherry juice (18.7 °Brix), concentrate (61 °Brix) and juice freeze-dried with addition of maltodextrin and arabic gum as encapsulating agents, were evaluated by CIELab parameters, a*…, b* and, L* . Anthocyanins content was measured by pH-differential method and total phenolics were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The glass transition temperature (Tg ) of the freeze-dried matrix was determined. RESULTS: It was found the stability of monomeric anthocyanins and colour retention during storage at 38°C was significantly superior in the freeze-dried encapsulated juice powder than in liquid cherry juices. CONCLUSIONS: This is attributed to the protective encapsulation of the anthocyanins in the amorphous matrix of maltodextrin/arabic gum of reduced water activity.