Purchase individual online access for 1 year to this journal.
Price: EUR 250.00
Impact Factor 2019: 1.009
WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Return-to-work (RTW)/back-to-work (BTW) interventions that are designed to rehabilitate individuals impaired from fulfilling employment roles are facing challenges. Ethics discourses, including ethics theories, principles and concepts, are meant to give guidance on what one ought to do or not to do and RTW professionals could use them to respond to their challenges. OBJECTIVE: A scoping review was performed to investigate to what extent 33 ethics concepts, theories, and principles are employed in RTW/BTW academic literature, and to what extent RTW/BTW is engaged with in ethics linked academic journals. METHODS: Three academic databases were searched, and…147 article results were extracted from our literature review to be thematically analyzed. RESULTS: Searches with n = 11 ethics concepts and n = 4 ethics theories generated results. The content of 20 RTW/BTW article results demonstrated conceptual engagement between RTW and ethics discourses. Only one article in ethics-related journals conceptually engaged with RTW/BTW. CONCLUSION: Ethics theories and principles were not used extensively in RTW/BTW academic literature and RTW/BTW is a topic under-engaged within ethics-related journals. Our findings indicate opportunities for further research, like conducting interviews, to better understand our findings and how to respond to them.
Keywords: Back to work, ethics theories, ethics concepts, ethical reasoning, conceptual engagement
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The paper is a research review focusing on occupational safety in the construction industry. OBJECTIVE: The purpose is to present research that highlights the areas of occupational safety and risks and to identify areas where research is lacking. METHODS: 146 articles from scientific journals, mainly covering the construction industry in Europe, Canada, USA, Australia and Japan have been studied. The findings are presented under 11 categories: accident statistics; individual factors; legislation and regulations; ethical considerations; risk management; leadership, management, organization; competence; safety design; cost-benefit calculations; programs and models; and technical solutions. RESULTS: The…research is dominated by initiatives from researchers and government authorities, while the construction industry only appears as the object for the research. There is a scarcity of research on integrated systems encompassing subcontractors, as well as a lack of research with sociological perspectives on accidents. Furthermore, only a few studies have applied a gender perspective on safety in construction, i.e. there is a need of further research in this particular area. CONCLUSIONS: A range of initiatives have been taken to increase safety in the construction industry and the initiatives are mainly reported to be successful. There are some cultural differences, but basically researchers present similar results regardless of country.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Waste management is a growing industry worldwide. Working conditions may entail risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders, and especially low back disorders (LBD). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review on: (i) the prevalence of LBD; and (ii) risk factors for LBD among waste collection workers. METHOD: A search was conducted in three electronic databases: Ovid Medline, EMBASE, and Global Health ePublications. Data were extracted on study design, sampling strategy, geographical region, LBD prevalence, and risk factors. Data were reported narratively. RESULTS: Thirteen full-text articles met the study criteria.…Using a range of definitions for LBD, the included articles reported a 12-month prevalence of ‘LBD’ between 16 to 74%, although none of the included studies quantified relationships between risk factors and LBD. None of the studies met all 9 risk of bias criteria. No articles investigated the association of risk factors and LBD, but even in absence this evidence authors of included studies suggested physical risk factors for LBD among waste workers: awkward posture, repetitive motion, and work duration. CONCLUSION: In light of these risks and future growth in this industry, the lack of high quality studies and investigation of risk factors highlight the need for more research in this sector which will support future LBD prevention efforts.
Keywords: Back pain, scavengers, waste pickers, recycling
Abstract: BACKGROUND: There is a trend in higher education towards the use of digital or electronic portfolios (ePortfolios) to collect evidence that demonstrates learning and skill development. There are very few papers that examine the key features and what to include in an occupational therapy ePortfolio. OBJECTIVE: This study presents an approach to developing a graduate entry ePortfolio to prepare occupational therapy students for transition to work. METHODS: An e-Delphi approach was used to gather the opinions of eight categories of experts. Three rounds of questionnaires were used to explore the purpose, terminology, content, structure, and development…phases of a graduate entry ePortfolio. RESULTS: Key stakeholders indicated that the purpose of a professional portfolio is to create a professional profile, record experiences, skills and behaviours, and promote recording of lifelong learning and achievements. Delphi expert panel members emphasised the importance of personal choice in selecting evidence recorded in each collection, which must be guided by ethical decision-making. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the study are important to students who wish to build an ePortfolio to organise and display evidence of competence prior to graduation in readiness to enter the workforce. The recommendations also will be of value to occupational therapy educators in curriculum development.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Work-related psychosocial factors such as job strain are thought to contribute to elevated psychological stress in office workers. One factor that may impact the relationship between job strain and psychological distress is the individual’s coping resources. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to examine the interaction effect of coping resources on the relationship between job strain and psychological distress in office workers. METHODS: 220 office workers in Australia and Korea completed the Job Content Questionnaire (to evaluate job strain and social support at work), the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, (DASS-21, a measure of…psychological distress), and the Coping with Job Stress Scale to assess control and escape coping. Hierarchical regression analyses were executed to examine the interaction and moderating effect of coping resources. RESULTS: Job strain had a direct positive relationship with all three domains of psychological distress. The relationship between job strain and depression was positively moderated by escape coping, but negatively moderated by social support. Use of higher levels of escape coping predicted higher levels of depression and anxiety symptoms when higher levels of job strain were perceived. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest there may be a direct relationship between job strain and psychological distress in office workers. This relationship, however, may be moderated by the office workers coping resources (coping strategies and social support). It is suggested that the evaluation of coping might be a key consideration in the elements of the assessment of psychological distress in office workers.
Keywords: Interaction effect, coping strategy, social support, work
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Mine workers in South Africa face various health and safety risks, and socioeconomic challenges. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the associations between socio-demographic factors and health, safety and wellness in the South African mining industry. METHODS: Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from 64 interviews with mine management and labour representatives, 14 focus groups with mine workers, and 875 questionnaires completed by mine workers from three platinum, two gold, one coal, one diamond, and one manganese mine in South Africa. RESULTS: Health challenges included non-communicable diseases, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and respiratory diseases,…while safety challenges included worker behaviour, stress and fatigue. Socio-demographic factors associated with disease, sick leave, fatigue, accidents and job satisfaction included age, length of service, race, nationality, education, mining sector, work status, income, housing, domestic crowding, sleep, exercise, alcohol use, and perceived quality of life. CONCLUSION: Socio-demographic factors should be taken into consideration when developing workplace health and safety programmes.
Keywords: Disease, sick leave, fatigue, work accidents, job satisfaction
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers experience a disproportionately high frequency of workplace assaults. Incidents involving firearms are of particular concern. OBJECTIVE: To provide detailed characterizations of recent hospital shootings to better inform prevention and mitigation strategies. METHODS: Quantitative content analysis of reports involving hospital shootings resulting in casualties derived from web searches for each year from 2012–2016. Data were abstracted independently by two investigators, with differences resolved by consensus. Data were compared between subgroups by chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, or Kruskal-Wallis test, as appropriate. RESULTS: Eighty-eight shootings occurred in 86 hospitals resulting in 121 firearms-related…casualties, including 54 victims and 67 perpetrators. Case fatality rates were 55.6% (n = 30) and 70.1% (n = 47), respectively. The most frequent sites involved were the emergency department, (n = 27, 30.3%), patient room (n = 19, 21.3%), and parking lot (n = 13, 14.6%). Grudge (n = 17, 19.3%), suicide (n = 14, 15.9%), and mental instability (n = 13, 14.8%) were the most common explanations for these shootings. Four inadvertent discharges occurred and were more likely to involve a female perpetrator (p = 0.03). Shootings were most frequent during summer (p = 0.03) and winter (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Out study findings on location and seasonal patterns can guide the development or improvement of prevention and mitigations strategies for hospital shootings.
Keywords: Firearm violence, active shooter, acute care, hospital, quantitative content analysis
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Children regularly use tablets in a variety of postures. Previous studies have shown that prolonged use of such an IT device increases the risk of musculoskeletal pain. OBJECTIVE: To investigate pain and muscle activity during tablet use by children in three different workstation positions–on the table with a case set, on a table, and on the lap. METHODS: Twenty five healthy and right-handed participants aged 10–12 years were recruited and assigned to play computer games for 15 minutes in each workstation. Pain(VAS) was measured at the neck, shoulder, upper back, and forearm regions immediately after…tablet use. Electromyography (EMG) was measured at the cervical erector spinae (CES), upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), and wrist extensors (WE) muscles during the final two minutes. RESULTS: Results showed that using a tablet on the table with a case set caused the least pain in the neck region (p < 0.05), compared with the use on the table and on the lap(which had pain scales of 0.37±0.86, 1.74±1.77, 1.72±1.90, respectively; mean±SD). EMG of cervical erector spinae during tablet use on the table with a case set was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those on the table and on the lap (muscle activity of 22.38±9.54,35.37±16.82, 35.29±13.30 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Tablet use on the table with a case set demonstrated a significantly lower severity of pain at the neck region than tablet use on the table and on the lap. To prevent musculoskeletal disorders, tablet use on the table with a case set is recommended as the optimal workstation for children.
Keywords: EMG, information technology, kids, discomfort, mobile device
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Several observation-based risk-assessment tools have been developed in recent decades. Studies reporting their use often focus only on the user, the ergonomist. The influence of context and the attributes of the tools may also affect the use but are factors that are seldom considered. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to explore the process of risk-assessment assignments and to identify factors influencing the use of research-based observation-based risk-assessment tools among Swedish ergonomists, with a background as reg. physiotherapists, employed in Occupational Health Services (OHS). METHODS: A web-based questionnaire (n = 70) was combined with…semi-structured interviews (n = 12). RESULTS: There was limited use of several observation-based risk-assessment tools. Furthermore, the results showed that ergonomics risk-assessment assignments are most commonly initiated reactively and that interventions were seldom evaluated. Factors that influence use are related both to the ergonomist and to the attributes of the tools as well as to contextual factors assigned to authorities, and internal organisations both within occupational health service companies and client companies. CONCLUSION: There was a lack of systematic approaches in ergonomics risks assessment and low use and knowledge of risk-assessment tools. This indicates that there is a need to support OHS companies in implementing systematic tools in their practice.
Keywords: Ergonomics, occupational health service, musculoskeletal disorders, observation tools, Ottawa model of research use