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WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a multi-systemic disability that causes a wide range of difficulties with personal and social functioning. METHODS: Four individuals with TBI participated in an evaluation of barriers to their continued employment following graduation from college. A trained interviewer completed the Work Experience Survey (WES) in teleconsultation sessions with each participant. RESULTS: Researchers applied a qualitative case study research design. Participants reported a wide range of difficulties in performing essential functions of their jobs (3 to 24) that have the potential to significantly affect their productivity. Career mastery problems reflected outcomes associated…with TBI such as ‘believing that others think I do a good job’ and ‘having the resources (e.g., knowledge, tools, supplies, and equipment) needed to do the job.’ Indicative of their wish to continue their current employment, participants reported high levels of job satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: The WES is a cost-effective needs assessment tool to aid health and rehabilitation professionals in providing on-the-job supports to workers with TBI.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Project Career is a five year NIDILRR-funded interprofessional demonstration project aimed to improve the academic and career success of undergraduate students who have a traumatic brain injury (TBI). The information for this case study was collected and synthesized by an occupational therapy graduate student intern for one of the Project Career sites in collaboration with the Technology and Employment Coordinator for the site, the co-PI for Project Career, and the student participant. OBJECTIVE: A case study is presented to provide an understanding of one of the Project Career participant’s experience using a telehealth service delivery approach to…working with Project Career for academic and career support. METHODS: The participant’s case notes, direct communication with the intern, and outcome assessments were used to perform a qualitative analysis. RESULTS: The participant reported that he believed Project Career was an effective support service for him. However, the participant’s initial and 6-month outcome assessment scores are inconclusive regarding improvements in his academic abilities and satisfaction with academic and career attainment. CONCLUSION: Further research on the effectiveness of using a telehealth service delivery approach to working with undergraduate students with a TBI is needed.
Keywords: Academic support, employment, virtual, cognitive support technology, secondary education
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The Job Accommodation Network (JAN) has provided customized accommodation information to employers, individuals with disabilities, and their representatives (e.g., family, rehabilitation counselors, union representatives) since 1983. For each inquiry where such information is sought, detailed records are maintained regarding the type of inquiries made and the information provided. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the current study is to present a descriptive analysis of the employer-initiated cases related to Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) handled by the accommodation specialists at JAN during the five years from 2012 through 2016. METHODS: Records related to instances of TBI as recorded…by the JAN accommodation specialists were reviewed. Information pertaining to the type of business, occupational category, limitations being experienced by the individual, and issues discussed with the accommodation specialist are presented. RESULTS: The type of businesses and the occupational categories indicated by the employer were broad ranging, although there was a preponderance of cases in the area of Public Administration. Limitations related to cognition were the most frequent for which employers sought accommodation information. The largest category for the type of issues discussed was related to the Americans with Disabilities Act and other disability-pertinent legislation. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of employers seeking accommodation information for individuals who have incurred a TBI is very low (0.5%). Findings support those of other authors such as Ponsford and Spitz (2015), in that accommodation information was most frequently requested for individuals in professional (i.e., office-type jobs), rather than for laborer positions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Project Career is a five-year interdisciplinary demonstration project funded by NIDILRR. It provides technology-driven supports, merging Cognitive Support Technology (CST) evidence-based practices and rehabilitation counseling, to improve postsecondary and employment outcomes for veteran and civilian undergraduate students with traumatic brain injury (TBI). GOAL: Provide a technology-driven individualized support program to improve career and employment outcomes for students with TBI. OBJECTIVES: Project staff provide assessments of students’ needs relative to assistive technology, academic achievement, and career preparation; provide CST training to 150 students; match students with mentors; provide vocational case management; deliver job development and placement…assistance; and maintain an electronic portal regarding accommodation and career resources. METHODS: Participating students receive cognitive support technology training, academic enrichment, and career preparatory assistance from trained professionals at three implementation sites. Staff address cognitive challenges using the ‘Matching Person with Technology’ assessment to accommodate CST use (iPad and selected applications (apps)). JBS International (JBS) provides the project’s evaluation. RESULTS: To date, 117 students participate with 63% report improved life quality and 75% report improved academic performance. CONCLUSION: Project Career provides a national model based on best practices for enabling postsecondary students with TBI to attain academic, employment, and career goals.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Project Career is an interprofessional five-year development project designed to improve academic and employment success of undergraduate students with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) at two- and four-year colleges and universities. Students receive technology in the form of iPad applications (“apps”) to support them in and out of the classroom. OBJECTIVE: To assess participants’ perspectives on technology at baseline and perceived benefit of apps after 6 and 12 months of use. METHODS: This article address a component of a larger study. Participants included 50 college-aged students with traumatic brain injuries. Statistical analysis included data from…two Matching Person and Technology (MPT) assessment forms, including the Survey of Technology Use at baseline and the Assistive Technology Use Follow-Up Survey: Apps Currently Using, administered at 6- and 12-months re-evaluation. Analyses included frequencies and descriptives. RESULTS: Average scores at baseline indicated positive perspectives on technology. At 6 months, quality of life (67%) and academics (76%) improved moderately or more from the use of iPad apps. At 12 months, quality of life (65%) and academics (82%) improved moderately or more from the use of iPad apps. CONCLUSION: Students with a TBI have positive perspectives on technology use. The results on perceived benefit of apps indicated that students with a TBI (including civilians and veterans) report that the apps help them perform in daily life and academic settings.
Keywords: Cognitive support technology, employment, note taking, study support, Matching Person
and Technology (MPT) Assessment
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Approximately two percent of the United States population are traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors. The unemployment rate among them is substantial. Cognitive skills are essential to perform any job. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the literature on cognitive rehabilitation (CR) related to mild/moderate TBI to learn the influence of cognition on return to work (RTW) post TBI. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the studies on CR related to RTW post TBI that were published between 2000 and 2015. RESULTS: We critically reviewed 30 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Ten studies highlighted cognition…as a predictor variable, seven studies demonstrated support for cognitive testing in RTW assessments, and 13 studies showed the efficacy of CR in facilitating RTW post TBI. CONCLUSION: Cognition plays a significant role in predicting and facilitating RTW in patients with TBI.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Individuals diagnosed with a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) often experience major limitations in returning to work despite participating in rehabilitation programmes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine whether individuals who sustained a traumatic brain injury experienced improved cognitive functioning after participating in an intervention programme that utilizes the Model of Occupational Self-Efficacy (MOOSE). PARTICIPANTS: Ten (10) individuals who were diagnosed with a mild to moderate brain injury participated in the study. METHOD: The research study was positioned within the quantitative paradigm specifically utilizing a pre and post intervention research design.…In order to gather data from the participants, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) was used to determine whether the individual with brain injury’s cognitive functioning improved after participating in a vocational rehabilitation model called the Model of Occupational Self Efficacy (MOOSE). RESULTS: All the participants in this study presented with an improvement in MOCA test scores. The results of the study revealed a statistically significant effect of the intervention (i.e. MOOSE) on cognitive functioning measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, F (4, 6) = 15.95, p = 0.002. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicated that MOOSE is a useful model to facilitate the return of individuals living with a TBI back to work. It is also suggested that cognitive rehabilitative activities be included as part of the vocational rehabilitation programme.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience difficulty with obtaining and maintaining employment post-injury. Although vocational rehabilitation (VR) can be one option to provide individuals with TBI support and services to lead to successful employment outcomes, information about these services can be difficult and confusing to navigate. Providing information on evidence-based employment practices to individuals with TBI through social media could be an effective approach. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the effect of a knowledge translation (KT) strategy and the use of a secret Facebook group, on the knowledge of evidence-based employment research…by individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: The study used a randomized pretest-posttest control group design. Sixty individuals with TBI were recruited through clubhouse programs in the state where the authors resided as well as through support groups nationally for individuals with TBI, and were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Both groups received information on evidence-based employment practices for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) over a three month period. One group received the information via participation in a secret Facebook group while the comparison group received information as an “e-news” email blast. Participants were assessed pre- and post-intervention with a Likert-scale instrument designed to measure knowledge of evidenced-based employment information for TBI. RESULTS: Both groups gained a significant amount of knowledge between baseline and post-intervention. However, there were no significant differences between groups in knowledge gained at post-intervention. CONCLUSION: While the study did not identify the most effective means of delivering information to individuals with TBI, it does provide some guidance for future KT research.
Keywords: Social media, vocational rehabilitation, VR, supported employment, employment of people with disabilities