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WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Parents who care for young children with chronic conditions are knowledge users. Their efforts, time, and energy to source, consider and monitor information add to the ‘invisible’ work of parents in making decisions about care, school transitions, and interventions. Little is known or understood about the work of parents as knowledge users. OBJECTIVE: To understand the knowledge use patterns and how these patterns may be monitored in parents caring for their young children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: An embedded case study methodology was used. In-depth qualitative interviews and visual mapping were employed to…collect and analyze data based on the experiences of three mothers of young children with CP. RESULTS: Knowledge use in parents caring for their young children with CP is multi-factorial, complex and temporal. Findings resulted in a provisional model elaborating on the ways knowledge is used by parents and how it may be monitored. CONCLUSIONS: The visual mapping of pathways and actions of parents as end users makes the processes of knowledge use more visible and open to be valued as well as appreciated by others. The provisional model has implications for knowledge mobilization as a strategy in childhood rehabilitation and the facilitation of knowledge use in the lives of families with children with chronic health conditions.
Abstract: Combat stress reaction (CR) is a syndrome with a wide range of symptoms including changes in soldiers’ behaviors, emotional and physiological responses, avoidance and a decrease in both personal and military functioning. The short-term goal in treating CR is a speedy return to healthy functioning, whereas the long-term goal is to prevent the development of PTSD. Previous research has indicated that the achievement of this short-term goal affects the achievement of the long-term goal and vice versa. Effective treatment requires intervention by trained professionals proficient in reinforcing personal and functional identity without psychiatric labelling. The present paper presents a therapeutic…model integrating OT in treating CR within a military setting. The model emphasizes the importance of preventing fixation to the role of ‘patient’ and a rapid return to maximal functioning. Based on Kielhofner’s Model of Human Occupation, which aims to promote adaptive and efficient functioning by engaging soldiers in tasks supporting their military identity, empowering functionality, and increasing their perceived competency. The model emphasizes the therapeutic milieu within a military environment. Practical application of this model focuses on interdisciplinary aspects and client-focused application. The paper describes an assessment process for each soldier entering the CR unit and a treatment model integrating OT.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Dairy milking is a demanding work task that has been associated with hand and wrist musculoskeletal disorders. Clinical approaches to identify the early effects of musculoskeletal disorders among dairy parlor workers’ wrist have not been well defined. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this pilot study was to develop a study protocol that would assist in the identification and quantification of hand and wrist disorders among dairy workers that perform tasks in the dairy parlor. Additionally, such a study protocol was needed to perform relatively rapid assessments of the wrist/hand on large samples of dairy workers. METHODS:…Fourteen dairy parlor workers were assessed for i) upper limb symptoms and work history through questionnaire, ii) a physical examination of the upper limb and in particular wrists and iii) wrist ultrasonography. An additional 21 unexposed paired participants (the control group) also participated in the data collection. RESULTS: The study results identified two ultrasound acoustic windows characterized by the highest predictive value for alteration of the wrist’s structure. Study results indicated an impairment of the distal median nerve in structure and mobility and impairment of the distal tendon of the muscle extensor carpi ulnaris that included dislocation and frank damage. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified at least two acoustic windows that should be assessed with ultrasound studies on larger groups and in prospective periodical health surveillance of dairy workers. The study confirmed the wrist was at risk for biomechanical stress among workers conducting milking tasks in the dairy parlors.
Keywords: Milkers, wrists overload, ultrasonography, study protocol
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Engaging in higher education poses challenges for students facing the multiple demands of work, learning and personal life. Evidence for occupational therapy (OT) practice within learning support centers (LSC) in higher education is lacking. OBJECTIVES: 1) to examine areas of difficulties that students experience based upon age, gender, work and faculty; 2) to validate the Trinity Student Profile (TSP) in Israel. METHODS: The TSP contains 75 items that result in three factors: person, occupation and environment . It is reliable and valid in the Irish sample. It was translated into Hebrew with permission. Participants…in the current study included 150 second-year college students. RESULTS: A significant difference within the person factor for age was found (p < 0.009). Significant interactions were found for person and occupation factors ranging from (p < 0.045 to 0.009) within different groups, and none for the environmental factor. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the importance of the person and occupation components of student concerns in the students’ experience. Further studies with the TSP and other measures in the field of OT should be conducted in different countries. OT within LSC would benefit from further use of the TSP such an instrument.
Keywords: Occupational therapy, learning difficulties, learning support center, students’ concerns
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Untreated Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) as a common breathing sleep disorder results in impaired work performance. The economic burden of untreated OSAS accounts for billions of dollars per year. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of snoring and the risk of OSAS in healthcare system staff. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on 715 staff of Dr. Masih Daneshvari Hospital in 2012. The Berlin questionnaire was used to identify the prevalence of snoring and the risk of sleep apnea. Additional information, including demographic characteristics, night work, night sleep…less than 4 hours, smoking, underlying disease, and quality of sleep were evaluated as well. The information was analyzed using SPSS 15. RESULTS: 12.6% reported snoring. 6.9% and 93.1% were categorized into the high and low risk groups for OSAS respectively. There was an association between the risk of OSAS and age group (P -value = 0.007), gender (P -value = 0.028), marital status (P -value = 0.008), educational level (P -value = 0.035), chronic disease (P -value = 0.008), night sleep less than 4 hours (P -value = 0.001), difficulty in staying asleep (P -value = 0.000) and waking up too early (P -value = 0.006). Even logistic regression analysis demonstrated the relationship between the risk of OSAS and night sleep less than 4 hours (P -value = 0.019) and difficulty in staying asleep (P -value = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the risk of OSAS is significant in healthcare system staff. Hope to provide a special screening program for OSAS in a regular occupational examination.
Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, healthcare center, worker, Berlin questionnaire
Abstract: BACKGROUND: With the increase of tablet usage in both office and industrial workplaces, it is critical to investigate the influence of tablet usage on spine posture and movement. OBJECTIVE: To quantify spine kinematics while participants interacted with a tablet or desktop computer. METHODS: Fourteen participants volunteered for this study. Marker clusters were fixed onto body regions to analyze cervical and lumbar spine posture and sampled at 32 Hz (Optotrak Certus, NDI, Waterloo, Canada). Participants sat for one hour in total. Cervical and lumbar median angles and range of motion (10th to 90th % ile angles) were…extracted from amplitude probability distribution functions performed on the angle data. RESULTS: Using a sloped desk surface at 15°, compared to a flat desk, influenced cervical flexion (p = 0.0228). Completing the form fill task resulted in the highest degree of cervical flexion (p = 0.0008) compared to the other tasks completed with cervical angles between 6.1°–8.5° higher than emailing and reading respectively. An interaction between device and task (p = 0.0061) was found for relative lumbar median spine angles. CONCLUSIONS: Increased lumbar flexion was recorded when using a computer versus a tablet to complete various tasks. Task influenced both cervical and lumbar spine posture with the highest cervical flexion occurring while completing a simulated data entry task. A work surface slope of 15° decreased cervical spine flexion compared to a horizontal work surface slope.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Research has identified barriers and facilitators affecting cancer survivors’ return to work (RTW) following the end of active treatment (surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy). However, few studies have focused on barriers and facilitators that cancer survivors experience while working during active treatment. Strategies used by cancer survivors to solve work-related problems during active treatment are underexplored. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe factors that impact, either positively or negatively, breast cancer survivors’ work activities during active treatment. METHODS: Semi-structured, recorded interviews were conducted with 35 breast cancer survivors who worked…during active treatment. Transcripts of interviews were analyzed using inductive content analysis to identify themes regarding work-related barriers, facilitators and strategies. RESULTS: Barriers identified included symptoms, emotional distress, appearance change, time constraints, work characteristics, unsupportive supervisors and coworkers, family issues and other illness. Facilitators included positive aspects of work, support outside of work, and coworker and supervisor support. Strategies included activities to improve health-related issues and changes to working conditions and tasks. CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer survivors encounter various barriers during active treatment. Several facilitators and strategies can help survivors maintain productive work activities.
Keywords: Content analysis, technology and tools, accommodation, cancer survivor, working during active treatment
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that self-control is positively related to life satisfaction, but this association in Chinese employees and its underlying mechanism are less commonly investigated. OBJECTIVE: In this preliminary study the relationships between self-control and life satisfaction and the mediating effect of job satisfaction were tested. METHOD: Participants were 482 full-time employees (188 male, 294 female) from different cities in China. They answered self-report questionnaires online that assessed self-control, job satisfaction, and life satisfaction. Path analyses were conducted and bootstrap technique was used to judge the significance of the mediation. RESULTS:…Self-control was positively related to both job and life satisfaction. More importantly, job satisfaction significantly mediated the association between self-control and life satisfaction. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the size of the mediating effect between intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this preliminary study provide further evidence of the positive association between self-control and life satisfaction. Job satisfaction is found to mediate this relationship.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Preventive behavior of workers is a major determinant of occupational health and safety performance of an organization. The measure of this concept is a challenge with French-speaking workers as there is no existing French validated tool. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this research was to realize a French transcultural validation of the Compliance with Safety Behavior Scale (CSBS). METHOD: Steps of parallel translations, reverse translation and pre-test were conducted before the administration of the CSBS to 195 participants. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted; Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients were calculated for each subscale; and…intra-class correlation coefficients were calculated for each item. RESULTS: Exploratory factor analyses support a three-factor structure explaining 53.44 % of the variance and confirmatory factor analyses validate that the measuring tool reflects three distinct factors, which are 1) compliance with safety rules and procedures, 2) participation and initiatives related to prevention, and 3) concern for social and physical environment. Results demonstrate that internal consistency is satisfying for two subscales (0.80 < α < 0.82) and that eight items are highly reliable (0.71 < r < 0.99, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The French version of the CSBS represents a valid and reliable tool allowing its use both for research and for clinical practice.
Keywords: Occupational health and safety, preventive behavior, psychometrics, questionnaire validation