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WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: Objectives: (1) To elucidate the impact of long-term sick leave on activity patterns, life roles and life satisfaction in younger women; and (2) to deduce the locus of control orientation in these women. Study design: Twelve women aged 21–30 years were interviewed in their own home concerning activities in daily life, family and work situations. A questionnaire containing checklists on activity preferences, occupational roles, life satisfaction, and locus of control was mailed to the participants prior to the interview. Results: Most of the women experienced restrictions in their activity pattern. Six of the women reported that they did…not possess a role as a worker, while the majority had and appreciated the roles as home-maintainer, partner, family member and friend. Six of the women were satisfied with life as a whole. Only two were satisfied with vocational and financial situations. The mean value of locus of control indicates an external orientation. Conclusions: Rehabilitation interventions for these clients need to be broad and problem-oriented. Occupational therapists seem to have an important role in assisting in the restoration of a more satisfactory life.
Keywords: Activity patterns, Life roles, Life satisfaction, Occupational therapy
Abstract: This paper examines the ethical dimensions of work productivity and work satisfaction. This issue is explored by looking at the ethical theory of Jeremy Bentham. He argues that work satisfaction is so highly subjective and personal that we can school people to experience work satisfaction when in the most distasteful jobs. Bentham argues that, from the perspective of the principle of utility, there is nothing wrong with schooling some people to experience work satisfaction from what seems like distasteful work. This paper suggests that Bentham's theory justifies class relationship and flies in the face of the notion of equality of…job opportunity.
Abstract: The current importance of school violence due to its recent increase, and also its association with school-specific psychosocial and physical environmental problems were considered as part of a recent survey of Swedish public-sector schools. The responses of the principals of a representative sample of schools (68.4% response rate) revealed that, for the school year 1995–1996, violence was a problem regarded as ‘moderate’ or ‘large’ in 15% of schools, ‘small’ in 62%, and as ‘non-significant’ in 20%. There has been a non-uniform trend in perceptions of violence across types of schools and municipalities since 1990. Schools where violence has been a…problem for some time were more likely to express dissatisfaction with the psychosocial and physical environment of the school, and to emphasize individual and adult-supervision factors as injury determinants. Prevention of intentional injuries requires a variety of interventions, adapted according to factors associated with the problem at local level.
Keywords: School safety, Pupil injury, Intentional injury, Work environment
Abstract: Ten people with psychiatric disabilities and their supported employment coordinators responded to a standardized, open-ended interview about the stresses experienced during the job search process and the coping strategies used to deal with these stresses. The stress inherent in the potential for rejection and negative valuation was a major theme. The respondents described both problem based and emotion focused coping strategies. The people with psychiatric disabilities also identified cognitive strategies they employ to maintain their motivation and ego integrity. While these cognitive strategies are used to neutralize the impact of a stress, they can be a source of tension within…the rehabilitation relationship. Current conceptualizations may not adequately address the struggles inherent in the job search process.
Keywords: Psychiatric rehabilitation, Employment, Job search, Stress and coping
Abstract: Reducing unsafe behaviors in the work place is of primary concern in industry. Unsafe behaviors seem to be shaped both by a subtle reinforcement of these behaviors by the work culture and by management's failure to define what constitutes unsafe behavior. Thus, any program to change these behaviors must focus both on defining and reinforcing safe behaviors. This paper reviews some of the literature associated with feedback and its effectiveness in increasing worker safety. The Theory of Planned Behavior is discussed as one possible mechanism for explaining the positive results achieved.
Keywords: Industrial safety, Theory of Planned Behavior, Token economy
Abstract: A pilot study was conducted on a residential unit in an institution for individuals with severe multiple physical and mental disabilities in order to compare the perceptions of direct care and professional staff members on the functional performance of wheelchairs. The study was a part of a collaborative research project with the OMRDD and School of Education, New York University that focused on enhancing the quality of life of those disabled individuals through the application of assistive technology. The results of the study showed a considerable discrepancy in the perceptions of wheelchair functional performance between two categories of care providers…on the unit. The members of the direct care staff perceived the wheelchairs as low functioning in contrast to the members of the professional staff who perceived the same wheelchairs to be close to fully functional. The possible causes of the differences between the members of both categories of care providers on the unit regarding the functional performance of wheelchairs and their accommodation to the specific needs of the clients are discussed.
Keywords: Assistive technology, Wheelchair functional evaluation, Direct care staff, Professional staff, ISO standard, Developmental disabilities
Abstract: This paper is the first of a series aimed at providing clinicians with a guide to assist them in using work-related assessments appropriately. The context of work-related assessments is described using a model. The purposes of work-related assessments are classified and discussed using the proposed model. The 10 major problems facing clinicians using work-related assessments are outlined. Companion papers describe the design, administration and interpretation problems in detail.
Keywords: Occupational rehabilitation, Work-related assessment, Work assessment, Functional capacity evaluation
Abstract: This paper is the second in a series aimed at providing clinicians with a guide to assist them in using work-related assessments appropriately. This paper discusses the four major design problems facing clinicians using work-related assessments. These problems are: (1) a confused definition of terms; (2) confused conceptual basis; (3) separation of the individual from the context and the environment; and (4) lack of assessment of psychosocial/cognitive aspects related to work. Suggestions are provided to assist clinicians in making decisions regarding work-related assessments. Recommendations for further research to ameliorate these problems are also made. Companion papers describe the purposes of…work-related assessments, and administration and interpretation problems in detail.
Keywords: Work-related assessment, Work assessment, Functional capacity evaluation, Occupational rehabilitation
Abstract: This paper is the third of a series aimed at providing clinicians with a guide to assist them in using work-related assessments appropriately. The major administration and interpretation problems facing clinicians using work-related assessments are described in detail. Administration problems are: (1) insufficient evidence of reliability and validity; and (2) potential examiner bias. Interpretation problems are: (1) inappropriate use of norm and criterion-referenced data; (2) inappropriate statistical manipulation of results; (3) difficulty in determining end-point; and (4) difficulty determining sincerity of effort. Companion papers describe the purposes of work-related assessments, and design problems in detail.
Keywords: Occupational rehabilitation, Work-related assessment, Work assessment, Functional capacity evaluation, Sincerity of effort, Normative data, Criterion-referenced assessment
Abstract: The effectiveness of different intervention strategies for preventing back pain was investigated. Due to physical job demands, nursing personnel appear to be at greater risk for back problems than the general population. This literature review examines various studies, to compare the effectiveness of intervention programs between nursing personnel and the general public. This review compares the effectiveness of two main forms of interventions reported in the literature: education and exercise based programs. Different styles of implementation (hands-on vs. observational) are further examined. Despite mixed results, a review of the literature indicates that an exercise-based program offers promising results. Although greater…uncertainty is seen in education-based interventions, an interactive approach is suggested for such a program. Implications for future areas of research are discussed.
Keywords: Education, Exercise, Back injury, Program