Technology and Health Care - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
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Technology and Health Care is intended to serve as a forum for the presentation of original articles and technical notes, observing rigorous scientific standards. Furthermore, upon invitation, reviews, tutorials, discussion papers and minisymposia are featured.
The following types of contributions and areas are considered:
1. Original articles:
Technology development in medicine: New concepts, procedures and devices associated with the use of technology in medical research and clinical practice are presented to a readership with a widespread background in engineering and/or medicine.
Significance of medical technology and informatics for healthcare: The appropriateness, efficacy and usefulness deriving from the application of engineering methods, devices and informatics in medicine and with respect to public health are discussed.
2. Technical notes:
Short communications on novel technical developments with relevance for clinical medicine.
3. Reviews and tutorials (upon invitation only):
Tutorial and educational articles for persons with a primarily medical background on principles of engineering with particular significance for biomedical applications and vice versa are presented.
4. Minisymposia (upon invitation only):
Under the leadership of a Special Editor, controversial issues relating to healthcare are highlighted and discussed by various authors.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinical effects of individual placement of intramedullary nail guided by digital technique in the treatment of tibial fractures. METHODS: Thirty-two cases of unilateral tibial fractures treated with individual placement of intramedullary nail guided by digital technique or conventional surgery were collected from October 2010 to October 2012. In the experimental group, the size of intramedullary nail, as well as the distance between the insertion point of tibial…intramedullary nail and the line perpendicular to the tibial plateau of the tibial tubercle were measured by digital technology preoperatively to select suitable intramedullary nail and appropriate insertion point. RESULTS: The operative time and bone healing time of the experimental group didn't change significantly (P > 0.05). There were statistically significant differences in the number of X-ray examinations and the distance between actual and planned nail placement point between experimental group and control group. The excellent and good rate of functional recovery for the experimental and the control group was 100% and 87.50%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Compared with the conventional surgery, individual placement of intramedullary nail guided by digital technique in tibial fractures might have superior outcomes.
Abstract: Involuntary human tremor due to clinical disorders may inhibit daily activities and can severely restrict lifestyle. Such tremor is associated with rhythmic movement of one or more body parts, where muscles contract and relax, causing twitching or sudden movement. Symptoms are most commonly the result of a psychological illness that causes the muscles to act involuntarily. Medical treatments to human tremor may pose harmful side effects, including hallucinations, and drugs used for treatment have varying degrees of success in reducing the symptoms of the illness. Our research provides a new, assistive technology that minimizes the effects of hand tremor, as…a substitute for drug-related therapy. The device is intended for use in creative art; a paint brush attachment, for application in painting. The engineering solution promises greater application for attachment to a variety of aids, such as for writing, eating or instructional, for device stabilization as used by persons suffering from hand tremor, irrespective of medical cause.
Keywords: Hand tremor, Parkinson's, active cancellation, activity aid, SMA wires, smart device
Abstract: Indoor flight, obstacle avoidance and client-server communication of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) raises several unique research challenges. This paper examines current methods and associated technologies adapted within the literature toward autonomous UAV flight, for consideration in a proposed system for indoor healthcare administration with a quadcopter. We introduce Healthbuddy , a unique research initiative towards overcoming challenges associated with indoor navigation, collision detection and avoidance, stability, wireless drone-server communications and automated decision support for patient care in a GPS-denied environment. To address the identified research deficits, a drone-based solution is presented. The solution is preliminary as we develop and…refine the suggested algorithms and hardware system to achieve the research objectives.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The acetabular component orientation during total hip arthroplasty (THA) impacts future hip function and early revision. Correcting pelvic obliquity may improve outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To correct pelvic obliquity in the lateral position by applying a gradienter and plumb during THA using fluoroscopy. METHODS: Fifty patients undergoing THA were randomized and divided into 2 groups. In controls, acetabular components were placed using traditional methods. In experimental patients, acetabular components were placed after correcting pelvic obliquity. We measured pelvic obliquity and recorded intra-operative and post-operative abduction angles, comparing abduction angle bias between post-operative measurements and…intra-operation estimations. RESULTS: Before correction, the average pelvic obliquity was - 1.647 ∘ ± 4.512 ∘ in experimental patients. The average abduction angle in experimental patients was 42.685 ∘ ± 3.355 ∘ postoperatively, differing by 1.962 ∘ ± 1.515 ∘ from intra-operative estimates, while in control patients, it was 44.534 ∘ ± 4.844 ∘ postoperatively, differing by 4.244 ∘ ± 3.042 ∘ from intra-operative estimates. The bias of the abduction angle was much greater in control than in experimental patients (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The pelvic obliquity in the lateral position affects surgeon judgment during THA. By correcting pelvic obliquity with a gradienter and plumb, the abduction angle bias can be reduced.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Sleep is a natural periodic state of rest for body and mind and daily sleep affects physical and mental health. However, it is essential to address intensity of sleep characteristics affecting the memory capacity of humans positively or negatively. OBJECTIVE: Using wearable devices to observe and assess the effect of daily sleep on memory capacity of college students. METHODS: This study assessed the daily sleep characteristics and memory capacity of 39 college students who used wrist-worn devices. The spatial span test (SST) was used to evaluate the memory capacity. RESULTS:…The study indicated a negative correlation between memory capacity and awake count on the test date and during the week before the test date (r = - 0.153 (95% CI: - 0.032, - 0.282), r = - 0.391 (95% CI: - 0.520, - 0.235), respectively). However, the minutes asleep on the test date and during the week before the test date positively affected memory capacity (r = 0.127 (95% CI: 0.220, 0.025), r = 0.370 (95% CI: 0.208, 0.500), respectively). In addition, spending ⩾ 6 hours and 42 minutes asleep on the test date or ⩾ 6 hours and 37 minutes asleep per day on average during the week before the test date resulted in a better memory capacity. CONCLUSIONS: A lower awake count led to a higher memory capacity in college students, as did more minutes asleep.
Keywords: Wearable devices, daily sleep, memory, college student
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Applying the proper technique for connections in Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) is crucial in preventing potential infectious complications. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different education methods in peritoneal dialysis (PD) application training on the psychomotor skills and self-efficacy of nursing students. METHODS: The randomized controlled and experimental study was conducted with a total of 28 nursing student participants. The PD training was provided theoretically and by using a PD simulator for the experimental group and by using videos for the control group. At the end of…the training, each student who was included in the experimental and control group were asked to perform PD on the PD simulator one by one. Psychomotor skills were evaluated according to the PD application skill evaluation criteria. Self-efficacy of the students before and after the application was also measured. RESULTS: Psychomotor skill scores of the students were found to be significantly higher in the experimental group, and there was no significant difference between the experimental and control groups in terms of self-efficacy scores. No statistically significant difference was detected between the self-efficacy scores of the experimental group regarding pre- and post-test results. CONCLUSION: This technique can be used to improve the development of psychomotor skills, since the demonstration of the PD application with the simulation technique is effective in the development of psychomotor skills.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of arch support functional insoles to prevent metatarsalgia. METHOD: Twenty-five healthy females participated in the study. A Vicon motion capture system was used to collect kinematics data of the lower limb. An AMTI force plate was used to record the vertical ground reaction force (GRF), and the Novel Pedar-X System was used to measure foot pressure while subjects wore normal insoles or functional insoles with an arch support during walking and jogging. RESULTS: With the arch support functional insoles, the…first metatarsal (FM) region’s contact area was increased and the peak pressure and time-pressure integral of the FM and second and third metatarsal (SATM) were areas decreased. This suggests a lower risk of longitude stress injuries in these areas. The ankle dorsiflexion angle of jogging with the ‘arch support functional insoles’ (RF) and walking with the ‘arch support functional insoles’ (WF) were significantly increased at initial contact and the knee and hip flexion angle of RF and WF were reduced. The peak hip extension angle of WF and RF also declined. The vertical loading rate of RF was lower, which would be beneficial in reducing the risk of lower limb injuries during jogging. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that arch support functional insoles can be used effectively to prevent and decrease pain and promote a suitable weight-bearing pattern in the foot for promoting the health of young females.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Blood sampling is frequently used in health to evaluate diagnosis and treatments. The first blood drawing is most important skill for nursing students. Nursing students gain these skills during their first years of education. OBJECTIVE: To identify the self-confidence and self-efficacy levels of first year nursing students when performing taking blood on their peers for the first time. METHODS: The sample (n = 70) of this descriptive and cross-sectional research comprised first year nursing students. The research was conducted in two stages; theoretical training and laboratory work…and students’ first taking blood on their peers. A Student Information Form, Blood drawing Skill Practice Evaluation Control Form, Self-Confidence Scale, and General Self-Efficacy Scale were used for data collection. Percentage calculations and the Mann-Whitney U test were used for data analysis. RESULTS: The total mean score of the students’ self-confidence was 130.09 ± 15.94 (Min = 91, Max = 157), and total mean score of self-efficacy was identified as 31.71 ± 3.92 (Min = 20, Max = 39). No statistically significant difference was detected between the students’ sex and high school type regarding self-confidence and self-efficacy total mean scores (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: It was observed that students’ self-confidence and self-efficacy levels were high when performing taking blood on their peers for the first time.
Keywords: Blood drawing, nursing students, self-confidence, self-efficacy, skill training
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Patients with LSS tend to adopt a flexed lumbar posture and trunk position, particularly when stepping over an obstacle, as this activity alters the biomechanical demands placed on the trunk and lower extremities. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) on patients’ trunk and lower-extremity kinematics, and on activities involving the gluteus medius (GMed) and vastus lateralis (VL). METHODS: All participants (9 older adult patients with LSS and 11 control subjects) were required to negotiate an obstacle while walking. Trunk and lower-extremity kinematic data and GMed and VL activities…were recorded using a synchronized 3D motion capture system and surface electromyography. RESULTS: The thoracic (12.01 ∘ ± 8.82 ∘ and 16.45 ∘ ± 10.80 ∘ ) and spinal (9.92 ∘ ± 14.03 ∘ and 5.99 ∘ ± 15.94 ∘ ) flexion angles of the leading and trailing swing limbs were higher, and the pelvic anterior tilting angle (2.37 ∘ ± 7.76 ∘ and 10.38 ∘ ± 8.07 ∘ ) was lower in the LSS group than in the control group (p < 0.05). With the exception of toe-off and normalized GMed activities in the contralateral leading limb (p > 0.05), all GMed (256.73 ± 112.22%, 174.00 ± 75.79%, and 270.57 ± 114.45%, respectively) and VL (208.98 ± 124.81%, 182.97 ± 93.23%, 283.91 ± 154.71%, and 394.42 ± 108.94%, respectively) activities of the contralateral leading and trailing swing limb (heel-strike and toe-off normalized activities) were significantly higher in the LSS group than in the control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with LSS exhibited trunk-flexed postures when stepping over an obstacle, and these trunk alignments placed higher demands on the GMed and VL activities normalized by double-limb support during joint loading in the single-leg stance. These findings support clinical recommendations for regulating the physical activity of obstacle negotiation that may be beneficial in the management of patients with LSS.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Conventional radiography (CR) is the imaging method of choice in monitoring bone remodelling and other stability parameters after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Quantitative roentgen- or computed-tomography-based methods to determine bone density are prone to metal artifacts and often very costly, which is why they are not used as standard in a clinical setting. Since subjective assessment of bone remodelling in CR also has a certain susceptibility to errors, semi-quantitative methods have been developed to help approximate periprosthetic bone density development via CR to open up an additional tool for documentation of radiographic THA follow-up. OBJECTIVE:…Proof-of-principle of a newly designed imaging-software-aided method to measure relative bone density around the femoral stem in a series of conventional radiographs following THA. METHODS: Eighty-six patients with hip modular tapered, fluted titanium stems were selected from the clinical database and series of baseline and postoperative follow-up radiographs were obtained after 24 and 48 weeks. Relative bone densities were measured per Gruen zones G1-7 with the use of an open-source image analysis package (ImageJ) by means of greyscale histograms. In addition, subjective evaluation of selected cases was performed by three independent, blinded orthopedic surgeons. Besides descriptive and nonparametric analyses, intra-class correlation (ICC) was performed and objective and subjective results were compared by linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Two individual cases are presented as a proof-of-principle. Increase or decrease of bone density could be measured correctly over time in each case. In a collective analysis there were no significant differences in mean relative bone densities between groups after 24 and 48 weeks, although a positive tendency was visible towards increased bone formation over time. Individual analyses by Gruen zones revealed that some zones, namely the proximal ones (e.g. G6), exhibit a broader scattering than others over time. This could be explained by the design of the evaluated tapered revision stem that achieves distal fixation and allows for proximal micromotion. Correlation analysis with subjective ratings (inter-rater reliability ICC = 0.71) showed a positive correlation with objective results, suggesting a feasibility of the method for clinical use. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion the presented method is an easy and accessible tool to quantify relative bone density changes during THA follow-up. It shows a positive correlation to established subjective assessment of bone remodelling and may therefore serve as a quantitative supplement in clinical documentation.
Keywords: Relative bone density, software, histogram, greyscale, revision hip arthroplasty