Technology and Health Care - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
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Technology and Health Care is intended to serve as a forum for the presentation of original articles and technical notes, observing rigorous scientific standards. Furthermore, upon invitation, reviews, tutorials, discussion papers and minisymposia are featured.
The following types of contributions and areas are considered:
1. Original articles:
Technology development in medicine: New concepts, procedures and devices associated with the use of technology in medical research and clinical practice are presented to a readership with a widespread background in engineering and/or medicine.
Significance of medical technology and informatics for healthcare: The appropriateness, efficacy and usefulness deriving from the application of engineering methods, devices and informatics in medicine and with respect to public health are discussed.
2. Technical notes:
Short communications on novel technical developments with relevance for clinical medicine.
3. Reviews and tutorials (upon invitation only):
Tutorial and educational articles for persons with a primarily medical background on principles of engineering with particular significance for biomedical applications and vice versa are presented.
4. Minisymposia (upon invitation only):
Under the leadership of a Special Editor, controversial issues relating to healthcare are highlighted and discussed by various authors.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinical effects of individual placement of intramedullary nail guided by digital technique in the treatment of tibial fractures. METHODS: Thirty-two cases of unilateral tibial fractures treated with individual placement of intramedullary nail guided by digital technique or conventional surgery were collected from October 2010 to October 2012. In the experimental group, the size of intramedullary nail, as well as the distance between the insertion point of tibial…intramedullary nail and the line perpendicular to the tibial plateau of the tibial tubercle were measured by digital technology preoperatively to select suitable intramedullary nail and appropriate insertion point. RESULTS: The operative time and bone healing time of the experimental group didn't change significantly (P > 0.05). There were statistically significant differences in the number of X-ray examinations and the distance between actual and planned nail placement point between experimental group and control group. The excellent and good rate of functional recovery for the experimental and the control group was 100% and 87.50%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Compared with the conventional surgery, individual placement of intramedullary nail guided by digital technique in tibial fractures might have superior outcomes.
Abstract: Involuntary human tremor due to clinical disorders may inhibit daily activities and can severely restrict lifestyle. Such tremor is associated with rhythmic movement of one or more body parts, where muscles contract and relax, causing twitching or sudden movement. Symptoms are most commonly the result of a psychological illness that causes the muscles to act involuntarily. Medical treatments to human tremor may pose harmful side effects, including hallucinations, and drugs used for treatment have varying degrees of success in reducing the symptoms of the illness. Our research provides a new, assistive technology that minimizes the effects of hand tremor, as…a substitute for drug-related therapy. The device is intended for use in creative art; a paint brush attachment, for application in painting. The engineering solution promises greater application for attachment to a variety of aids, such as for writing, eating or instructional, for device stabilization as used by persons suffering from hand tremor, irrespective of medical cause.
Keywords: Hand tremor, Parkinson's, active cancellation, activity aid, SMA wires, smart device
Abstract: Indoor flight, obstacle avoidance and client-server communication of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) raises several unique research challenges. This paper examines current methods and associated technologies adapted within the literature toward autonomous UAV flight, for consideration in a proposed system for indoor healthcare administration with a quadcopter. We introduce Healthbuddy , a unique research initiative towards overcoming challenges associated with indoor navigation, collision detection and avoidance, stability, wireless drone-server communications and automated decision support for patient care in a GPS-denied environment. To address the identified research deficits, a drone-based solution is presented. The solution is preliminary as we develop and…refine the suggested algorithms and hardware system to achieve the research objectives.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The acetabular component orientation during total hip arthroplasty (THA) impacts future hip function and early revision. Correcting pelvic obliquity may improve outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To correct pelvic obliquity in the lateral position by applying a gradienter and plumb during THA using fluoroscopy. METHODS: Fifty patients undergoing THA were randomized and divided into 2 groups. In controls, acetabular components were placed using traditional methods. In experimental patients, acetabular components were placed after correcting pelvic obliquity. We measured pelvic obliquity and recorded intra-operative and post-operative abduction angles, comparing abduction angle bias between post-operative measurements and…intra-operation estimations. RESULTS: Before correction, the average pelvic obliquity was - 1.647 ∘ ± 4.512 ∘ in experimental patients. The average abduction angle in experimental patients was 42.685 ∘ ± 3.355 ∘ postoperatively, differing by 1.962 ∘ ± 1.515 ∘ from intra-operative estimates, while in control patients, it was 44.534 ∘ ± 4.844 ∘ postoperatively, differing by 4.244 ∘ ± 3.042 ∘ from intra-operative estimates. The bias of the abduction angle was much greater in control than in experimental patients (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The pelvic obliquity in the lateral position affects surgeon judgment during THA. By correcting pelvic obliquity with a gradienter and plumb, the abduction angle bias can be reduced.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Knee and hip replacement surgery are still the mainstay therapy for osteoarthritis. In spite of the improvement of techniques and implants, anemia is a relatively common complication, with transfusion rates of up to 23% in some centers. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine a correlation of transfusions to complications including infection since this topic is still being debated or even disputed in the literature. METHODS: This is a level III, single center retrospective observational cohort study of 2760 unilateral primary knee and hip replacements. Preoperative assessment, the number of transfusions…and the occurrence of complications were collected and the correlations were analyzed using analysis of variance and logistic regression. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of all patients developed at least one complication. Transfusion rate was 9%. Risk factors for receiving a transfusion were female gender, hip replacement, American Society of Anesthesiologists’ Score (ASA) > III, history of myocardial infarction, chronic cardiac disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and length of surgery. The risk factors for developing a complication were: ASA score, presence of chronic renal insufficiency, and transfusion during hospital stay. Transfusion increases the risk of complications and infection rate. Complication rate with transfusion was 34.7% and without transfusion 13.2%. Infection rate without transfusion was 0.4% and with transfusion 2.82%. CONCLUSIONS: The complication rate is higher in transfused patients. The number of complications rises linearly with the number of transfusions. Infection rate is also higher after a transfusion. Efforts should be made to reduce the transfusion rate.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Hill-type musculotendon models are most commonly used in biomechanical simulations for their computational efficacy and efficiency. But these models are generally built for maximally-activated muscles and linearly scale muscle properties when applied to submaximal conditions. However, the precondition of this scaling, which is muscle activation and properties are independent each other, has been proven unreal in many studies. Actually, the maximal activation condition is not ubiquitous for muscles in vivo , so it is necessary to adapt the linear scaling approach to improve the model practicability. OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed at proposing two improved Hill-type…musculotendon models that are better suited for submaximal conditions. METHOD: These two models were built by including the activation-force-length coupling and their biological accuracy and computation speed were evaluated by a series of benchmark simulations. RESULTS: Compared to experimental measurements, the percent root mean square errors of forces calculated by the two AFLC models were less than 13.98% and 13.81% respectively. However, the average running time of the second AFLC model was nearly 17 times that of the first one with only a little improvement in accuracy. CONCLUSION: The two AFLC models were validated more accurate than the common Hill-type model in submaximally activated conditions and the first one was recommended in the construction of upper-layer musculoskeletal models.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: A portable back massage robot which can complete the massage operations such as tapping, kneading and rolling was designed to improve the level of intelligence and massage effect. An efficient full covered path planning algorithm was put forward for a portable back massage robot to improve the coverage. BACKGROUND: Currently, massage robots has become one of important research focuses with the increasing requirements for healthcare. The massage robot is difficult to be widely accepted as there are problems of massage robot in control, structure, and coverage path planning. METHOD: The 3D electromagnetic…simulation model was established to optimize electromagnetic force. By analyzing the Traditional Chinese Medicine massage operation and the demands, the path planning algorithm models were established. The experimental platform of the massage robot was built. RESULTS: The simulation results show presented path planning algorithm is suitable for back massage, which ensures that the massage robot traverse the entire back area with improved massage coverage. The tested results show that the massage effect is best when the duty cycle is in the range of 1/8 to 1/2, and the massage force increases with the increase of the input voltage. CONCLUSIONS: The massage robot eventually achieved the desired massage effect, and the proposed efficient algorithm can effectively improve the coverage and promote the massage effect.
Keywords: Coverage of massage area, portable massage robot, path planning, Traditional Chinese Medicine
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of soluble low-density lipoprotein receptor 11 (sLR11) genes with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and carotid atherosclerosis (CAS) in Korean and Han nationalities in the Yanbian area. METHODS: 530 T2DM patients were divided into two groups according to the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery: CAS group (n = 256, T2DM patients with carotid artery IMT ⩾ 1.0 mm and plaque) and non-CAS group (NCAS group, n = 274, T2DM patients with carotid…IMT < 1.0 mm). IMT and plaque were measured by color Doppler ultrasound. SNP typing and sequencing were performed by PCR-LDR. RESULTS: 1. Allele frequency and genotype frequency distribution results: Differences in genotype and allele frequency distribution between the CAS and NGT groups, the NCAS and NGT groups, and the CAS and NCAS groups were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The dominant and recessive modes were analyzed, but the difference in genotype frequency among these three groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Differences in genotype frequency distribution between Korean and Han populations in all three groups were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). 2. Correlation analysis with clinical indicators: LDL-C levels in TT and AT patients in the CAS group were significantly higher than those in AA patients (P > 0.05), representing the dominant mode of inheritance.. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to determine that the sLR11 gene rs3824968 polymorphic of factor T may increase the risk of CAS in T2DM patients by regulating the concentration of LDL-C, showing the dominant mode of inheritance.
Keywords: sLR11Gene polymorphism, type 2 diabetes mellitus, carotid intima media thickness
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Upper extremity (UE) motor function deficits are commonly noted in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and assessing it is challenging because of the lack of consensus regarding its definition. Instrumented biomechanical analysis of upper extremity movements can quantify coordination with different spatiotemporal measures and facilitate disability rating in MS patients. OBJECTIVE: To identify objective quantitative parameters for more accurate evaluation of UE disability and relate it to existing clinical scores. METHODS: Thirty-four MS patients and 24 healthy controls (CG) performed a finger-to-nose test as fast as possible and, in addition, clinical evaluation kinematic…parameters of UE were measured by using inertial sensors. RESULTS: Generally, a higher disability score was associated with an increase of several temporal parameters, like slower task performance. The time taken to touch their nose was longer when the task was fulfilled with eyes closed. Time to peak angular velocity significantly changed in MS patients (EDSS > 5.0). The inter-joint coordination significantly decreases in MS patients (EDSS 3.0–5.5). Spatial parameters indicated that maximal ROM changes were in elbow flexion. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings have revealed that spatiotemporal parameters are related to the UE motor function and MS disability level. Moreover, they facilitate clinical rating by supporting clinical decisions with quantitative data.