Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 9, issue 2
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Obesity is linked to high dietary intake and low physical activity. Studies showed that those factors were not only regulated by environment but also regulated by genetic variations. However, the relationship has less been understood in obese children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the role of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in uncoupling protein (UCP) 2 -866G/A and UCP3 -55C/T on dietary intake and physical activity in obese female adolescents. METHODS: This is an observational study with cross sectional design. Respondents were obese female adolescents enrolled from obesity screening…done in six junior high schools in Yogyakarta. RESULTS: Seventy eight obese female adolescents joined this study. From 2 SNPs that have been analysed, we found that SNPs in UCP2 was associated with dietary intake and physical activity (p = 0.02 and p = 0.02, respectively). Interestingly, subjects with combination of UCP2 -866GG and UCP3 -55CC had slightly higher percent fat to total energy intake compared to those with UCP2 -866AA and UCP3 -55TT (mean difference = –3.8±1.9; p = 0.059). CONCLUSION: We concluded that SNPs on UCP2 was related to dietary intake and physical activity in Indonesian obese female adolescents.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Protein-free (PF) foods are routinely used in dietetic management of advanced chronic kidney disease in diabetic subjects. The enrichment by fiber has the purpose to reduce their impact on postprandial glucose levels. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to determine the Glycemic Index (GI) of PF bread and pasta enriched with soluble psyllium and inulin fiber. METHODS: 14 adults, non obese, well controlled type 2 diabetic subjects consumed a 50 g carbohydrates containing serving of soluble fiber enriched PF pasta and PF bread. White bread was the reference food. Glucose levels were controlled fasting and…at 30’, 60’, 90’, 120’ and 180’. RESULTS: PF bread induces a significantly higher glucose increase at 120’ and 180’ (p < 0.05) and PF pasta at 30’ vs white bread (p < 0.05); PF pasta induces significantly lower glucose levels at 90’ and 120(p < 0.05) after the meal. PF pasta had (a medium) GI (70,10±22,6%), PF bread a high GI (117,32±26,9%). CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm the unfavorable effect of PF food on postprandial glucose levels that is not limited by the addition of soluble fiber. In nutritional counselling it could be useful to suggest pasta to bread and include it in low GI meals.
Keywords: Carbohydrates, low protein diet, hyperglycemia, chronic kidney failure, glycemic index
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Previous experiences revealed that increasing the amylose content through the substitution of normal amylose (NA) with high amylose (HA) flours can improve slowly digestible starch properties of cereal-based foods. However, data for wheat-based breads are not clear, since HA sources are frequently used in combination with organic acids and/or specific baking conditions know to reduce rate and extent of starch digestion. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to conduct an in vitro evaluation of starch digestibility of wheat-based breads characterised by increasing amylose levels. METHODS: Wheat-based breads were formulated with increasing amylose levels derived from…the substitution of NA white wheat (NAWW) flour with HA maize starch (HAMS) represented by substitution ratio of 0%, 15% and 30% on a total flour basis. RESULTS: Dietary fibre increased (p < 0.05) whereas crude protein decreased (p < 0.05) when the level of HAMS increased in the recipe. The resistant starch and slowly digestible starch fractions increased (p < 0.05), whereas the predicted glycaemic index and the in vitro rate of starch hydrolysis decreased (p < 0.05) when HAMS increased in the formulation. CONCLUSIONS: Present findings suggested that the use of HA ingredients could contribute to formulate wheat-based breads with overall slowly digestible starch properties.
Keywords: Bread, high amylose, predicted glycaemic index, resistant starch, wheat
Abstract: There are places around the world that are characterized by high longevity rates; among these places are islands in Eastern Aegean Sea (Ikaria Island). Sparse data suggest that islanders’ nutritional habits are based on both local products and the coastal transport development; however, the level of adherence to the traditional Mediterranean lifestyle is relatively unknown. This review explores eating habits and behaviors, as well as the health status of people living in Eastern Aegean Sea islands.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease, global leading cause of morbi-mortality, deserve a special attention of efficacious and safe treatments. Development of new principles based on the intestinal microbiome has been revealed as a promising approach. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a combination of three Lactobacillus plantarum strains on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other lipid parameters in hypercholesterolemic adults. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 60 patients (mean age 51.8 y, BMI 26.2 kg/m2 , LDL-C 167.5 mg/dL) not receiving lipid-altering treatment were treated either with a L. plantarum -containing probiotic (LpPRO) or placebo (PLBO) single capsule…daily for 12 weeks. Lipid and safety parameters were assessed at screening/baseline, 6 and 12 weeks of treatment, and after a 4-week follow-up period. RESULTS: At 12 weeks, compared to PLBO, the LpPRO group had significantly (p < 0.001) larger reductions in LDL-C (24.4 vs. 9.8 mg/dL), total-C (33.7 vs. 10.6 mg/dL), LDL-C/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (0.8 vs. 0.3), oxidized LDL (7.5 vs. 1.0 U/L) and triglycerides (29.1 vs. 4.1 mg/dL). HDL-C was also significantly (p < 0.001) increased in LpPRO vs. PLBO (2.9 vs. 0.4 mg/dL). CONCLUSIONS: The L. plantarum combination reduced LDL-C and improved other lipid parameters, suggesting its potential for hypercholesterolemia treatment.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The phenomenon of nutrition transition has been considered to greatly affect diet quality, especially of younger generations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate, through the use of the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), several aspects of the diet quality in a sample of Mediterranean adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional investigation was conducted during two scholastic years (period October-May of 2012-13 and 2013-14) on 1643 adolescents attending 15 secondary schools of Sicily, southern Italy. Dietary information (through food frequency questionnaire), socio-demographic and lifestyle habits were collected. RESULTS: The mean age of adolescents…was 12.4 years and the mean total modified DQI-I score was 52.3% of the total possible score. Adolescents reported an intake of fruit between 50 and 100% of the recommended intake, while for vegetable and fibers more than 40% did not achieve the 50% of the recommendation. BMI, physical activity, breakfast habit and KIDMED were positively associated with DQI-I. CONCLUSIONS: Diet quality of adolescent is low with a low adherence to traditional dietary patterns. Future intervention programs have to focus on increasing consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables and grains as well as in moderation of fat intake in order to achieve a better diet quality.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Subjects with a Mediterranean eating pattern would be a low risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The eating pattern of two subsets of subjects was evaluated by an accurate alimentary interview, the first composed of Italian subjects living in Liguria, a region overlooking the Mediterranean sea, and the second composed of individuals from Si-Chuan, a continental region in north western China. RESULTS: In the two groups the Mediterranean dieting score was very similar, while a detailed diet composition assessment showed that in the customary food intake reported by Chinese individuals…the unsaturated to saturated fat acids ratio and the omega 6 to omega 3 fat acids ratio was sharply lower and higher, respectively, in comparison with the corresponding values referred to by the Mediterranean people. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that the eating style of the population from the region of Si-Chuan seems to be similar to that found in Northern Europe and the US, and therefore subjects might be at increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome.
Keywords: Mediterranean diet, Chinese population, saturated and unsaturated fat, ω3 and ω6 fatty acid