Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 9, issue 1
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: This study evaluated the prevalence of poor glycemic control and factors associated with it among patients with type 2 diabetes in northern Iran. Totally, 367 patients (132 men and 235 women) were studied and data on their age, sex, body weight, height, weight gain in adulthood, blood pressure, lipid profile, hemoglobin A1C values, educational levels, living area, doing exercise, between meal snack and pharmacologic treatment were collected. Glycemic control was categorized as good control if A1C<7% and poor glycemic control if A1C≥7%. These data showed that 73.3% of the study patient had A1C≥7% (women 71.9% and men 75.8%, p < 0.68)…and they had poorer metabolic control in most of laboratory parameters including blood lipid levels than good control group. In univariate analysis patients with good glycemic control were more educated, younger and were less likely to be treated with insulin than poor control patients. Poor and good glycemic patients were not different in frequency of doing regular exercise, weight gain, income levels and between meal eating behaviors. In multivariate analysis having a positive genetic background OR = 11.6 (1.4–23.9 p > 0.02) was positively and age >60 y OR = 6.8 (1.108–22.8 p < 0.03) was negatively related to glycemic control in these patients. In conclusion, a considerable proportion of these Iranian patients had poor glycemic control. These data showed that glycemic control is more difficult to obtain with increasing age indicating that duration of diabetes and delaying appropriate treatment play role in poor glycemic control.
Abstract: Many studies suggest that fish consumption could be protective for health, but epidemiological studies on different dietary patterns show that fish-eaters have a higher cardiometabolic risk when compared to people relying on a plant-based diet not including fish. The benefit of fish consumption was related to its content of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), but toxic chemicals released into environment like heavy metals and several industrial by-products, because of their lipophilic properties, concentrate in fish fatty tissues, the same containing LC-PUFAs. Furthermore, the continuous increase in demand for fish is progressively damaging the marine biodiversity, and the…volume of the fishing catch, the latter lower than the demand, made it necessary to resort to fish farming. Although meat, dairy and fish products represent dietary sources of PCBs, the latter represent the main source in human diet (respectively 9%, 19% and 67%). Methyl-mercury’s main source also seems to be fish products. Fish farming products are safer for methyl-mercury residue but other substances could be found in higher concentrations than fish caught. Moreover, ecological impact could be detrimental. From this point of view, a reassessment of the health risk-benefit ratio and sustainability of fish consumption is warranted.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus continues to increase alarmingly in spite of years of intensive research. The need to explore alternative therapy such dietary and phytotherapy has been gaining attention in the management/treatment of diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: The present research work was carried out to investigate the biochemical indices in the liver and kidney of alloxan-induced diabetic rats fed with Artocarpus altilis fruit based-diet. METHODS: Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg) in albino rats. A total of thirty two albino rats (Rattus norvegicus ) were grouped into four;…control (non-diabetic rat), diabetic untreated rats, diabetic rats administered with metformin daily and diabetic rats fed with Artocarpus altilis fruit based-diet groups. Biochemical indices in the serum, liver and kidney were determined. RESULTS: The results shows significant (P < 0.05) decrease in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, urea, creatinine and lipid peroxidation of diabetic fed with Artocarpus altilis fruit based-diet. Also diabetic rats fed with Artocarpus altilis fruit based-diet demonstrated significant increase (p < 0.05) in albumin and total protein concentrations as well as antioxidant enzymes activities when compared with diabetic untreated rats and diabetic rats administered with metformin daily. CONCLUSION: The results obtained in this study demonstrated that consumption of Artocarpus altilis fruit based-diet may ameliorate the liver and kidney function indices of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Inhibition of intestinal maltase and sucrase prevents postprandial blood glucose excursions which is beneficial in ameliorating diabetes-associated complications. OBJECTIVE: In this study, the inhibitory effects of fruit extracts of Parinari macrophylla, Detarium microcarpum , Ziziphus spina-christi, Z. mairei and Parkia biglobosa were investigated against intestinal maltase and sucrase. METHODS: Rats were given co-administration of the fruit extracts with maltose or sucrose and blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 30, 90 and 120 min. RESULTS: The glucose-time curves indicated that all the fruits had the most potent inhibitory effects on both…maltase and sucrase within the first 30 min. The computed Area Under the Curves (AUC0–120 ) for all the fruits indicated more potent inhibitory effects against intestinal maltase than sucrase. The ED50 range for the fruits extract against maltase and sucrase were 647.15–1118.35 and 942.44–1851.94 mg/kg bw respectively. CONCLUSION: The data suggests that the fruits could prevent postprandial hyperglycemia via inhibition of intestinal maltase and sucrase.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Obesity is a global problem to which alcohol could contribute, and adolescent anthropometric measures have a predictive role for overweight in adults. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relations among nutritional knowledge, drinking habits and anthropometric measures in a cohort of local young people. METHODS: Two questionnaires on alcohol consumption and on nutritional knowledge were submitted to 110 healthy subjects and their anthropometric data were taken. RESULTS: Nutritional knowledge did not affect anthropometric data in females, while an inverse relationship between nutritional knowledge and WHR was observed in males. In females a quadratic…relation between BF and HC and alcohol consumption was reported. In addition the amount of alcohol showed a linear correlation with HC. In males no relations among antropometric measures and alcohol consumption were found. Students with the highest nutritional competences consumed more alcohol than the others. In our cohort 14,29% of males and 5,56% of females were at risk of alcohol addiction, while binge-drinking was found in 17,86% of males and 0% of females. CONCLUSIONS: Better nutritional knowledges are not enough to counteract the social aspects of drinking, and alternative ways of social entertainment should be proposed.
Abstract: The project has evaluated the effectiveness of interventions for nutritional counseling through the use of techniques of motivational counseling, aimed at increasing motivation to change unhealthy lifestyles. The study was carried out almost experimentally with three nutritional outpatients, that enrolled subjects to be submitted to nutritional counseling using techniques of motivational counseling representing the “experimental group” and one outpatient which recruited subjects submitted only to traditional Nutritional Counseling representing the “control group”. The trial, conducted between September 2009 to December 2011, was structured in 5 stages: Visit, First Control, Second, Third and Fourth Control. Aspects investigated were: 1) Willingness to…change, 2) Motivational factors, 3) Body Mass Index and 4) Lifestyles and physical activity. The work of NO was considered effective if it had obtained following results: not gaining weight for normal weight people, a reduction of at least 5% for overweight in the period that went from the first visit to the fourth control. This definition allowed us to distinguish outcomes in “Success” and “Failures”. For the four motivational factors analyzed in the “Pilot” and “Controls”, it was found that the Inner Fracture and the Temptation decreased, while the Self-efficacy and Importance increased. The increase of scores recorded in the evaluation of the Availability to change has increased the effectiveness of treatment. From the analysis of results for the Willingness to change and the four motivational factors, it was observed that the increase of average scores recorded also an increase of the effectiveness of the treatment.
Keywords: Nutritional counseling, nutrition outpatient, nutritional counseling and treatment effectiveness
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the most prevalent non-communicable condition in Nigeria and many developing countries; it is recognized as a serious risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and responsible for an estimated 45% of deaths due to heart disease and 51% of deaths due to stroke globally. Several studies testified the health promoting effect of camel milk. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to investigate the potentiality of camel milk in the management of hypertension and insulin resistance. METHOD: Rats were divided into four groups: Group I: control (normal), Group II: salts induced hypertension untreated, Group III: salt-induced…hypertension treated with camel milk, Group IV salt-induced hypertension treated with 100 mg/kg Metformin+10 mg/kg Nifedipine. Groups II, III and IV were placed on 8% salt diet for 10 weeks. RESULT: Significant increase (P < 005) in blood pressure, serum glucose, serum insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) was observed in Groups II, III and IV compared with control group. Treatment with camel milk lessens the effect of the salt-diet. No significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between group III and group IV in respect to serum glucose, serum insulin and HOMA-IR. Camel milk supplemented group shows appreciable decrease in SBP and PR from 140 to 121 mmHg and 486 to 384 beats/minute respectively. CONCLUSION: Camel milk supplementation could be a promising method for the management of hypertension and insulin resistance.
Keywords: Camel milk, insulin resistance, blood pressure, nifedipine and salt-diet