Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 8, issue 2
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: This paper describes the chemical composition of 17 oil samples obtained from cactus seeds collected from five different origins in Morocco, the major producer of cactus seed oil. The oil content of the samples varied in a relatively small range between 5.4 g/100 g and 9.9 g/100 g. The main fatty acids of cactus seed oil are oleic acid (20.5 g/100 g) and linoleic acid (62.3 g/100 g) representing 80–84% of the total fatty acids. The main component of the tocopherol fraction is gamma-tocopherol (83–90%). It is followed by alpha- and delta-tocopherol whereas beta-tocopherol is found in lower amount. In all samples beta-sitosterol was found as the main…phytosterol (80.0% to 84.5%). This phytosterol is also typical for many other edible vegetable oil. This study, carried out on randomly selected samples, clearly demonstrates that origin does not have an effect on the chemical composition of cactus seed oil.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of E. coracana seed coat matter (SCM) - supplemented feed on Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Wistar albino rats with a view to helping ameliorate the negative impact of diabetes. A total of 25 rats divided into 5 groups of 5 rats each were used in this study. STZ-induced diabetic rats without treatment were used as diabetic control, non-diabetic rats were used as normal control while Metformin (2.5 mg/kg body weight) was used as the standard drug. Other groups are diabetic rats fed with 20% finger millet SCM and diabetic rats fed with…40% finger millet SCM. The experiment was carried out for 6 weeks. The study revealed that there was a clear reduction in the fasting blood glucose level of the SCM-supplemented diabetic and standard drug groups compared to the diabetic control group. The serum albumin, total protein, urea and creatinine levels were significantly improved (P < 0.05) in the SCM-supplemented diabetic groups compared with diabetic control group. There were visible improvements in the weights of rats supplemented with SCM compared to the diabetic control group. The levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL were also significantly reduced in the SCM-supplemented diabetic groups compared with the diabetic control group. The findings suggest that supplementation of diet with SCM could be helpful in the management of diabetes. However, the small sample size and short observation period imply that more work could be done to validate its potency.
Abstract: The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of adiposity in a sample of 35–65 years old individuals from Mashhad in North Eastern Iran, and to ascertain the socioeconomic factors contributing to obesity. The MASHAD study was initiated in 2010 and is a longitudinal cohort study of 9765 individuals aged 35–65 years old. It used a stratified cluster randomized sampling design. Anthropometric measurements [height, weight and waist circumference (WC)] were measured by standard methods. The criteria for under-weight, normal-weight, overweight, and obesity were a BMI of 18.5>, 18.5 to 24.9, 25 to 29.9, 30< (kg/m2 ), respectively. Abdominal…obesity was defined as WC ≥102 cm in men and WC ≥88 cm in women and obesity was defined as BMI ≥30. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and chi-square tests were used to determine whether different categories of demographic and lifestyle variables were associated with different degrees of adiposity. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight were 30.9% and 42.8% respectively. The overall prevalence of central obesity was 46.7% . The prevalence of obesity in women was higher than in men (P < 0.0001). There was an inverse relationship between the risk of obesity and increasing socioeconomic status (P < 0.0001). Adiposity is prevalent in Mashhad, and appears to be particularly common in women. This may be due to the high levels of physical inactivity in the population as a whole and among women in particular.
Keywords: Body mass index, central obesity, obesity prevalence, overweight, waist circumference
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Yogurt is a food product with intrinsic health properties. Health messaging and promotion has emphasized its nutritional qualities and its role in weight management. Some evidences highlighted that yogurt consumption has been more commonly adopted by people with healthier diet and lifestyle. OBJECTIVE: To explore if yogurt intake of Italian adults and older adults is associated with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out on a sample of households randomly selected after geographical stratification of the national territory. 2798 subjects aged 18–97 years were considered for this study. Yogurt intake was…assessed using a 3-day dietary record. Sociodemographics, smoking and alcohol habits, physical activity, dieting, out-of-home eating, interest for nutrition information, were obtained from self-administered questionnaires. RESULTS: 636 subjects (22.7% ) consumed yogurt, with an average intake of 90.4 g/day. Higher intake was reported by subjects with higher levels of education, those who practiced ≥2 hours/week of sporting activities, those with a good knowledge of the food-health relationship and accustomed to reading food labels. Yogurt consumers demonstrated healthier behaviours compared with non-consumers. CONCLUSIONS: Further analyses on the dietary and nutritional profile of yogurt consumers are needed in order to examine more in-depth the role of yogurt in the Italian diet.
Abstract: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Nowadays, role of diet as a possible predisposing factor to diabetes and other non-communicable diseases is considered. MATERIALS/METHOD: A total of 1026 young unmarried women aged between 18 to 30 years old from all parts of Iran who were supported by Imam Khomeini Relief Foundation, were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric indices were measured and dietary intake was assessed with a semi-quantitative 302-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). RESULTS: The dietary intakes were compared in absolute and adjusted forms between four BMI groups. The amount of energy, fat and fiber intake in the absolute forms were…statistically different between various groups. Comparison of fat mass, lean mass, lean body mass and body mass did not differ significantly between quartiles of energy and dietary intake. The results of Multi-factorial analysis to determine the simultaneous effects of multiple data showed that energy intake, carbohydrate and protein intake were statistically significant in absolute terms. CONCLUSION: According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that there is a significant relation between macronutrients intake and anthropometric indices. Also, individual’s anthropometric status can be predicted according to their macronutrients intake.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is becoming the most common cause of liver disease worldwide. However, there are few reports about the intake of various nutrients in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of dietary intake and their associations with NAFLD. METHODS: This case-control study was performed on 280 subjects (140 patients with NAFLD and140 healthy subjects) who attended nutrition clinic, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Dietary intake was assessed using an Iranian semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary intake was compared with data reported by clinically healthy individuals.…Regression models were fitted to assess the relation between dietary patterns and non- alcoholic fatty liver disease. RESULTS: The means (and SD) age of the samples were 39.3 ± 11.4 years for NAFLD group and 38.6 ± 11.3 years for the controls. After adjustment for total energy intake, NAFLD group had higher carbohydrate intake (235.60 ± 31.12 g vs. 222.47 ± 21.18 g, P < 0.001). However, the consumption of vitamin E, folate and potassium was significantly less in patients than controls (P < 0.001.(After adjusting for confounders, higher intake of carbohydrate was significantly associated with an increased risk for NAFLD (OR = 4.15, 1.66–10.38; P < 0.05), While higher intake of fat, vitamin A and folate was significantly associated with lower odds of the disease (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: It seems that within an Iranian population, there may be an association between diet and NAFLD. A large-scale trial and more prospective studies are yet warranted.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The Holy Quran is considered to be the authoritative spiritual and behavioral guide for practicing Muslims all around the world. With obesity becoming a growing public health problem in the predominantly Muslim Arab countries, culturally competent dietary and health-promoting strategies and interventions are warranted. The traditional Mediterranean-style diet (MD), which is considered among the healthiest diets, holds both a cultural and historical context within the dietary traditions of North Africa and the Middle East. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a narrative study of relevant passages mentioned in the Holy Quran which supports the characteristic features associated with the MD.…METHODS: A narrative review of the Holy Quran in both electronic and hard cover format was carried out to identify key foods and features that are characteristic of the MD. RESULTS: A total of 24 relevant passages were identified with a significant focus on fruits, vegetables, and whole grains commonly associated with the MD. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the Holy Quran could serve as a significant influential source for culturally competent health educators, dietitians, and health professionals serving in Muslim populations in North Africa and the Middle East for improving and maintaining dietary patterns and features that resemble the MD.
Keywords: Obesity, Holy Quran, mediterranean diet, cultural competency
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Snack foods; crisps and biscuits, and beverages; fruit juices and soft drinks, are some of the most commonly consumed products by children of school age worldwide. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate if snack foods and beverages are suitable for consumption by children of school age through recording and comparing the nutritional information presented on the nutrition panel such as energy, protein, total carbohydrates and total fat for these products. METHODS: The nutritional information from 56 products sold in different supermarket out lets across Muscat, the capital city of Oman, was collected…and statistically analysed using the mean and the percentage of Recommended Daily Intake. RESULTS: Based on the percentage of Recommended Daily Intake of energy and nutrients, crisps offer higher amounts of energy and total fat for children when compared to biscuits. Meanwhile, biscuits offer lower amount of energy than crisps but offer a higher amount of total carbohydrates for children. Regarding fruit juices and soft drinks, the former offer higher amount of energy than the later but both, however, offer comparable amounts of total carbohydrates. CONCLUSION: Upon comparing the nutritional information of the products studied and considering their nutritional benefits and health risks, it seems that biscuits are suitable choice for children.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Several researches studied the relationship between Ca assumption and overweight/obesity. Levels of Ca supplementation higher than requirement, were related to increased fat loss in subjects at ipo-caloric diet and Ca from dairy foods resulted more effective than Ca from mineral source in the promotion of weight loss. OBJECTIVE: Since the available studies were conducted using very high levels of Ca supplementation or on subjects fed Ca lacking diet, we studied the role of Ca from dairy foods on subjects receiving ipo-caloric diet, with Ca content adequate to the requirements. METHODOLOGY: 40 pre-menopausal, women nursed for…their obesity and eating or not dairy foods, were recruited for the study. They received ipo-caloric diets, with Ca equal to requirements. Subjects avoiding dairy products received also a Ca supplement (No Dairy group, n = 15), while other women eating at least 2 servings/d of low fat dairy products (Dairy group, n = 40). Body weight, abdominal fat and blood parameters were monitored at the beginning and at the end (3 months) of the experiment. Age and BMI were: 37.7 ± 7.5 years and 34.4 ± 3.7 for subjects included in the Dairy group and 39.8 ± 9.8 years and 33.8 ± 3.5 for women of No Dairy group. RESULTS: Women in the Dairy group showed a weight loss of 7.03% respect the initial weight, while in women avoiding dairy products the weight loss was 3.21% (P < 0.01). The whole body fat loss was 10.79% and 6,0% , for Dairy and No Dairy respectively, however the consumption of Ca from dairy foods did not affect waist circumference and abdominal-visceral fat. No evidence of significant effect of the food treatments on the main haematological parameters related to the adipose tissue metabolism were seen. Insulin levels did not showed significant variations. Leptin concentration in blood decreased between the beginning and the conclusion of the trial as a consequence of fat mass decrease (P < 0.10), but without difference between the dietary treatments. Instead the IL-6 showed a higher reduction in subjects receiving the Dairy+ diet compared to diet without dairy products. The IL-6 levels showed a significant decrease between the beginning and the end of the experiment, apart from the diet (1.20 vs 0.66 pg/ml; P 0.0135). Both the adiponectin and the unesterified fatty-acid concentration were not influenced by the diet but, while adiponectin decreased between the beginning and the end of the study, NEFA did not show significant variations along time. IL-6 was positively correlated with leptin and fat mass, confirming the relationship between fat accumulation and inflammatory status. CONCLUSIONS: Diets containing dairy foods have increased body weight and fat loss compared to diet lacking of milk and derivatives. Also the blood levels of IL-6 resulted lower in Dairy diets.
Keywords: Ca, dairy products, IL-6, adiponectin, obesity