Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 15, issue 2
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: Destructive outcomes of coronavirus pandemic call for medical research which can report all of the influential agents not only for the treatment of the disease but also preventing its severe impacts on the societal health in the most efficient manner. Zinc plays an integral role in the function of cellular enzymes and transcription factors. Owing to its anti-inflammatory and cellular immunity regulation activity, zinc is regarded to be effective on strengthening the immune system. Its crucial antiviral effects have long been established as well. Studies suggest that low serum zinc level predisposes the patient to severe COVID-19 infection, which makes…patient’s zinc profile a potential determinant of prognosis and severity of this disease. Furthermore, zinc supplementation has indicated promising outcomes of coronavirus infection management. Zinc modulates cell-mediated immunity and participates in the killing of microorganisms in cytotoxic immune cells. Zn2+ has anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting IL-6 production. Although there is still not enough evidence, it seems that zinc could be a promising supplementary treatment for COVID-19 especially in zinc-deficient patients. The aim of this review is to clarify the role of zinc in pathogenesis and therapy of COVID-19 in detail.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) causes gastrointestinal tract dysregulation and triggers inflammation. Severe inflammatory events often lead to leukocyte infiltration. Yacon is known to have anti-inflammatory properties, making it a potential alternative treatment for colitis. AIMS: To investigate colonic Interleukin-23 (IL-23) level and leukocyte infiltration profile in 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid (TNBS)-induced colitis mouse model treated with yacon syrup powder. METHODS: Thirty male BALB/c mice (5 weeks old, body weight: 30.02±1.28 g) were randomly divided into 6 groups (K1-K6). Intra-rectal administration of TNBS was performed to K2-K6 to make the colitis model. K4-K6 were given yacon syrup powder…daily for 14 days with the dose of 0.165, 0.331, and 0.662 g/30 g body weight (BW) respectively. IL-23 levels of colonic tissue were measured using ELISA. Leukocyte infiltration profile was calculated through microscopic observation of histology slides and presented in percentage and degree. RESULTS: Significantly different IL-23 levels were observed among the groups (P < 0.001). The percentage and degree of leukocyte infiltration in yacon-treated groups showed a significant decrease compared to colitis groups (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Yacon syrup powder provides beneficial effects on colitis mice by lowering the IL-23 level and number of leukocytes at the inflammation site.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Inadequate nutrient intakes in adolescents may negatively affect their future health. The identification of inadequate micronutrient intakes by dietary study provides essential information to guide educational strategies for promoting healthy eating habits. OBJECTIVE: To assess the daily micronutrient intake and the prevalence of inadequacy in a sample of middle and high-school pupils in the Rif region of Morocco. METHODS: A cross-sectional study collected dietary information from food records over three non-consecutive days in a sample (n = 302) of Moroccan Riffian adolescents (12–18 years). The DIAL software, adapted for commonly eaten Moroccan foods, was used to…estimate micronutrient intakes. The proportion of individuals with intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or the Adequate Intake (AI) level and the probability approach were used to estimate the prevalence of inadequacy. RESULTS: Regardless of gender and age group, our subjects were found to be particularly at risk of inadequate intakes of vitamins E and D, calcium and potassium. Older adolescents (14–18 years) also showed a risk of inadequate intake of folate, biotin, magnesium, iodine and zinc (among boys). CONCLUSION: For many nutrients, the daily diets of our Riffian adolescents do not meet the recommended intake levels. We emphasize the need for monitoring the dietary habits of adolescents and the development of nutrition education programs. Further studies which include the clinical and biological assessment of nutritional status, as well as the regular collection of quality and nationally representative micronutrient data, are recommended.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adolescent obesity has become a pressing public health issue in Morocco. Along with the increased prevalence of obesity, body weight misperceptions have also increased among adolescents, which may reduce the effectiveness of intervention programs. The main study objective was to establish the relationship between body image perception, anthropometric status and their associated factors among a sample of Moroccan adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional school-based survey was conducted during 2018, involving 250 adolescents from Morocco. Data on sociodemographic information, anthropometric characteristics, and weight perception were collected and reported as the means and proportions. Statistical analysis was carried out using…Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 19.0 software. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in our study reached 12.8% and 4.8%, respectively. Misperception of body weight compared to body mass index (BMI) was found in 50.4% of young adolescents (χ2 = 54.05; p < 0.001), and dissatisfaction computed by the Feel minus Ideal Discrepancy (FID) index reached 46% with no difference between the sexes (χ2 = 2.55; p > 0.05). The Feel weight status minus Actual weight status Inconsistency (FAI) index was used to determine whether the subjects’ perception of their weight was realistic. The results showed that both sexes tended to underestimate their weight. Only 68.2% of overweight/obese participants reported trying to lose weight (χ2 = 39.74; p < 0.001), while this number increased to 94.7% when the intention to lose weight was related to perceived body image (χ2 = 86.09; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study reveal that a mismatch exists between the perception of body weight and actual BMI in adolescents, with a tendency toward underestimation, affirming the early effect of social norms and the vulnerability to sociocultural influences of individuals in this age category. Future interventions and educational programs are thus required to prevent overweight and obesity and to address the mismatch between adolescents’ weight status and their perceived weight.
Keywords: Anthropometric status, body image, adolescents, socio-economic status, Beni-Mellal city, Morocco
Abstract: BACKGROUND: A healthy diet is a major factor in childhood for proper mental and physical development, and schools are valuable settings for promoting nutritional health. Teachers have a key role as educators and as a link between children, families, and institutions. OBJECTIVES: The study aims at describing the teachers’ profile and to evaluate the level of adherence of their schools to the recommendations by Health Promoting Schools concerning nutritional issues. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 131 Spanish and Italian teachers from kindergartens and primary schools. RESULTS: The lack of…a structured approach to school food emerged, as well as a low quality level of food consumption at school. Among the positive aspects, there is the compliance with the dietary reference values for the intake of nutrients and energy of meals supplied by cafeterias and the collaboration with nutritionists in health services, but other desirable circumstances are neglected (e.g. training courses for staff, the involvement of students, supply of water and vegetables such as healthy drinks and snacks). CONCLUSION: The study confirmed the need to train teachers and to strengthen school action plans, particularly the agenda around the sustainability of the school food and nutrition environment.
Keywords: Keywords: Nutrition, Health Promoting School, teachers, dietary habits, role modelling, recommendation adherence
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The healthy diet is important to maintain immunity against infection. This study aimed to assess and compare the consumption of functional foods, some antioxidants, and dietary inflammatory index between Iranian COVID-19 patients and healthy persons. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted between 1000 (500 cases and 500 controls) adults aged 18–65years in Iran, that were sampling based on the snowball method and their information was collected electronically. The dietary intake was assessed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). RESULTS: There was a significant difference (p = 0.044) in vitamin D consumption between healthy people and COVID-19…patients. Vitamin E intake in healthy participants was significantly (p = 0.041) more than COVID-19 patients. There was a significant difference in Zinc (p = 0.011), selenium (p = 0.021), and vitamin C (p = 0.023) between healthy persons and COVID-19 patients. Healthy participants’ consumption of onion (56.5±7.82 g/day), garlic (4.32±0.01 g/day) and oat (6.32±0.71 g/day) was significantly (p ≤0.05) more than COVID-19 patients. With the increase of each unit in the score of the dietary inflammatory index, the risk of COVID-19 incidence increased 1.63 times (OR = 1.63 95% CI: 1.54–1.72). There was an inverse association between the consumption of antioxidants and functional foods with the risk of COVID-19 incidence in the study population (p ≤0.05). CONCLUSION: Healthy people consumption of antioxidants and functional foods was more than COVID-19 patients and there was a significant inverse association between the risk of COVID- 19 incidence with the consumption of functional foods and antioxidants. Increasing the dietary inflammatory index score increased the risk of COVID- 19 incidence. There is a need for further clinical trials to confirm the effect of consuming functional foods and antioxidants on the prevention or treatment of COVID-19.
Keywords: COVID-19, antioxidants, functional foods, dietary inflammatory index
Abstract: The aim of the study is the assessment of the food security status and its association with some risk factors of chronic obesity-related diseases in Ardabil-Iran population. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was done between 500 adults of Ardabil that were selected by random sampling from Persian cohort study participants, in January 2019. Food insecurity of study participants was measured using the United States Department of Agriculture 18-item questionnaire. Some risk factors of chronic diseases including fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, liver enzymes, and dietary information were measured on the day of the interview. To assess the association between variables…the correlation and linear regression tests were used. RESULTS: Forty-eight and six percent of the study participants were food secure and 51.4% were in food insecurity status. There were a significant difference in weight, blood glucose, blood pressure, and serum triglyceride levels between the food security status groups (P < 0.05). The food insecurity score had significant association with participants, weight (p = 0.005,β= 1.66), serum triglycerides (p = 0.022,β= 0.027), body mass index (p = 0.003,β= 0.645) and fasting blood sugar (p = 0.0001,β= 0.664). CONCLUSION: About half of the participants were in food insecurity status. Food insecurity status can be associated with obesity and some risk factors of chronic obesity-related diseases. This problem requires main food policies to reduce food insecurity in the community.
Abstract: Diabetes prevention programs have been developed in the different countries and it is therefore necessary to gain a better understanding of factors affecting the effectiveness of these programs for each society. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the National Diabetes Control and Prevention Program (NDCPP) on the biochemical and anthropometric indices among a sample of Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM). A total of 384 patients with T2 DM from the primary health care system of Tehran and Tabriz cities during January to June 2020, were included in the study. A…two-part questionnaire consisting of items related to socio-economic and demographic characteristics was used and biochemical and anthropometric indices were measured at the beginning and the end of the 3-month intervention period. There was a significant difference in fasting blood sugar (FBS), hemoglobin glycosides (HbA1 C), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and weight before and after the NDCPP (P < 0.001). Also, there was significant improvement in carbohydrate (P = 0.015) and protein intake (P = 0.027) after the NDCPP compared to before the study. No significant difference was observed in waist circumference (WC) (P = 0.689), body mass index (P = 0.784), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.647), and other dietary nutrient intake before and after the NDCPP. Repeated measure ANOVA revealed a significant decrease in FBS (Time effect P = 0.019) and weight (Time effect P = 0.006) after the NDCPP. Also, residing in different cities had a significant effect on FBS (time×city effect P < 0.001), HbA1 C (time×city effect P < 0.001), and SBP (time×city effect P = 0.037) after the NDCPP. The NDCPP resulted in weight loss, improved HbA1 C, and FBS. These findings suggested that NDCPP had a positive effect on controlling T2 DM among Iranian population and can be considered as a way to prevent complications of T2 DM.
Keywords: National diabetes control and prevention program, Type 2 diabetes, evaluation study, Iran
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Caffeine can affect depressive symptoms and decision-making. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the relationship between caffeinated beverages consumption with depressive symptoms and decision-making styles. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 432 adults working in office environment. The questionnaire consisting of individuals’ socio-demographic attributes, the frequency and the amount of caffeinated beverages consumption, the “Epidemiological Research Center-Depression (CES-D) Scale” and the “Decision-Making Styles Scale” were used. The frequency and amount of caffeinated beverages were determined using the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The participants were asked to choose which cup/mug they prefer to drink their…caffeinated beverages and what amount they consume that beverage at a time. All the data were collected using online platforms. RESULTS: In the study, 76.7%of the participants were female and the mean age was 31.5±8.0 years. The average daily total caffeine intake of the participants was 425.8±461.4 mg and the total CES-D scale score was 17.7±11.2 points. It was found that as the amount of caffeine consumed increased, intuitive decision-making decreased and depressive symptoms increased (p < 0.05). In linear regression analysis, total caffeine consumption was found to be a significant predictor for the intuitive decision-making score (B: –0.151; p:0.002). When caffeine consumption is controlled, intuitive and rational decision making decreases with increasing depressive symptoms while addiction and avoidance decision making increased (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: As a result, the amount of caffeine consumed daily was related to intuitive decision-making but did not effect depression. It has been observed that depressive symptoms affect decision-making styles in different ways. To our knowledge, our study is the first to examine the effects of caffeine consumption on depression and decision-making styles. Accordingly, future studies may focus on the link between caffeine consumption, depression, and decision-making styles in larger populations and the mechanisms that influence this relationship.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: There are growing interests in the use of medicinal mushrooms in controlling overweight and obesity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of Lingzhi on anthropometric indices, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile and blood pressure of overweight individuals METHODS: This randomized double-blind clinical trial was performed on seventy-two overweight individuals (Body Mass Index (BMI) = 25–29.9 kg/m2 ) received 3 capsule Ganoderma Lucidum (each capsule containing 220 mg of whole powder and 30 mg of pure aqueous extract) daily or matching placebo for 6 weeks. Anthropometric indices, metabolic tests (fasting blood sugar (FBS) and…serum lipid profile) and blood pressure were measured before and after treatment. RESULTS: Data analyses indicated that body weight and BMI were decreased after 6-week intervention (P < 0.05). The beneficial effect of supplementation was evident on some anthropometric indices. Changes in LDL-cholesterol were significantly different between two treatment and placebo groups (P < 0.05). FBS, other components of lipid profile and blood pressure did not significantly change by Lingzi treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that Ganoderma Lucidum might have some potential benefits on anthropometric indices and mild effects on lipid profile, but and there is no claim for weight lose function. Hence, further long-term studies are recommended.