Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation - Volume 8, issue 1
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Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation will provide a forum for discussion and dissemination of information about the major areas that constitute vocational rehabilitation.
Periodically, there will be topics that are directed either to specific themes such as long-term care or different disability groups such as those with psychiatric impairment. Often a guest editor who is an expert in the given area will provide leadership on a specific topic issue. However, all articles received directly or submitted for a special issue are welcome for peer review. The emphasis will be on publishing rehabilitation articles that have immediate application for helping rehabilitation counselors, psychologists and other professionals in providing direct services to people with disabilities.
Original research articles, review articles, program descriptions, and case studies will be considered for publication. Ideas for special topical issues are welcomed as well.
Abstract: This manuscript provides an expanded definition of community-based instruction that includes the systematic facilitation of natural supports in integrated work places. A model for considering workplace intervention and support is provided that defines natural supports by considering the relationship of support mechanisms to the workplace culture and the process by which supports are' initiated. A particular concern that has been cited about the growing emphasis on natural supports has been our ability to describe operationally specific strategies that represent a consultative or facilitative approach for ETS intervention. Data are provided that document relationships between strategies used by an employment training…specialist (ETS) to facilitate natural supports, the extent to which the ETS emphasizes consultation over direct training, and the culture (or inclusiveness) of the workplace and outcomes of supports received in the workplace and workplace inclusion. Examples of specific strategies used in the expanding role of employment training specialists illustrate the changing role of the ETS as a consultant and facilitator in the areas of job performance and social interaction.
Abstract: We examine the effectiveness of conversational skills instruction in increasing the integration of workers with severe disabilities in supported employment settings. Two types of instruction were compared, conversation script instruction and question asking instruction. Results demonstrate that both of the instructional strategies increased the social interactions of the workers with severe disabilities. Integration data were collected using direct observation, social validation, and global measures. Generalization was assessed to other persons, settings, and situations.
Keywords: Conversation skills, Work place integration, Conversation script instruction, Question asking instruction
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to provide a conceptual basis for promoting long-term maintenance in supported employment by incorporating generalization programming into follow-along procedures. We propose that maintenance is a dynamic process in which variations of employee behavior evolve over time in response to an ever-changing work context. If behavior is not responsive to these changes, maintenance of the work placement may not occur. In this article, we describe some issues that are related to long-term maintenance and propose a model for evaluating maintenance. This model incorporates hypothesis testing of variables that guide and maintain behavior. When a variable…(e.g. a given person, task, or setting) has been identified as necessary for acceptable work behavior, generalization training is initiated to facilitate long-term maintenance. We suggest that this type of training is critical because job termination is a likely outcome when maintenance problems emerge. Thus, programming for maintenance must be conducted proactively rather than after problems occur. To illustrate this approach, we provide specific training strategies to promote long-term maintenance.
Abstract: This paper describes a six-step model for teaching self-management skills in employment settings. The model combines self-instruction with teaching multiple examples of task responses. The six steps of the model are: (a) selecting examples of desired responses; (b) classifying examples by similarity; (c) dividing responses into teaching examples and generalization probes; (d) training teaching examples using self-instruction; (e) evaluating the effects of teaching; and (e) withdrawing teaching and evaluating the effects of teaching withdrawal. Using the model, we have taught supported employees and high school students to increase their independent performance across a variety of job tasks and work-related problem…situations. We present a step-by-step application of the self-management model with examples derived from our research and illustrate its use with a case study to guide job coaches. Finally, we provide suggestions for research and practice.
Abstract: This study identifies factors contributing to the successful vocational integration of employees with disabilities (N = 55) who participated in three European-Funded employment initiatives conducted in the Republic of Ireland. The Vocational Integration Index (Parent, W.S., Kregel, J. and Wehman, P. (1992) Vocational Integration Index: Measuring Integration of Workers with Disabilities. Boston: Andover Medical Publishers) was used to assess the integration of all participants. Multivariate analyses investigated the relationship between vocational integration, employee characteristics, employment conditions and employer satisfaction with employee work performance. Results indicate that employee characteristics such as age and level of disability, and employment conditions such as…number of days worked per week and number of employees with a disability are significantly related to the level of integration achieved by employees participating in the three projects. Discriminant analysis revealed that employers consistently rate more integrated employees as outperforming their less integrated colleagues across six work dimensions. Examination of these findings and recommendations are discussed.
Abstract: Each year thousands of young people with disabilities in secondary level education programs face questions around how best to prepare for living and working in the community. Given that research studies indicate a high level of unemployment among young adults who have recently transitioned from secondary level education programs, this article reviews the education, transition, and employment service strategies that have demonstrated effectiveness in helping transitioning youth be successful in employment in the adult community. The transition process from youth to adulthood is overviewed with particular emphasis on supported employment as a proven means for providing services and supports in…the community. Educational models are described that have demonstrated effectiveness in helping youth with disabilities achieve community integrated employment outcomes. These include functional curriculum, integrated school environments, and community based experiences. Strategies for strengthening implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) are described, and a series of recommendations are provided for improving the success of transition efforts.
Keywords: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Transition, Supported employment, Community integration, Functional curriculum Community based instruction
Abstract: The Jobs Plus project of the Pizza Hut corporation has implemented a national corporate employment initiative for persons with severe disabilities over the past 10 years. Since 1989, Pizza Hut has reported financial benefits of over $19 million in tax credits from its employment efforts for persons with disabilities. As a result of retention rates four to five times superior to those of non-disabled co-workers, Pizza Hut has saved over $8 million by reducing turnover. The economic benefit reported to the community was consequential. $12 million in local state, and federal taxes were paid by new workers who were hired…by Pizza Hut. Taxpayers saved an additional $43 million in reduced SSI spending (i.e. welfare), and rehabilitation costs. Of the 14000 or more persons employed through the Jobs Plus initiative, 72.5% reported a primary disability of mental retardation. Hired into a wide variety of positions, these individuals realized an average 104% increase in wages. Advances in internal corporate motivation and benefits included tax credits, improved labor needs, lowered turnover rates, and improvements in ADA issues. The project had an impact on CEO leadership, human resources, and staff development in field operations. Not only did the corporation benefit, the local community shared in the benefits as well. There were improvements in community collaboration in the advocacy of supported employment and vocational rehabilitation. These improvements directly effected the corporate culture. Finally, and most importantly, the quality of life for individuals with disabilities has improved.
Abstract: The purposes of this study were to: (1) document and compare the effectiveness of two business/sales oriented job development models in supported employment, the Cold Call and Referral Models; and (2) determine preliminary job development activity standards that could be used to gauge areas of job development strength and weakness and pinpoint improvement strategies. The results indicated that the Referral Model, in which employers were contacted through third-part advocates, was found to be superior to the Cold Call Model, in which job developers contacted employers directly. Specifically: (a) fewer business contacts were required to obtain a yes decision through referrals;…and (b) the referral process resulted in a higher percentage of employers that continued to work with job developers across each subsequent step in the job development process. Practitioner implications were addressed in light of these findings. Future research needs also were discussed.