Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation - Volume 39, issue 3
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Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation will provide a forum for discussion and dissemination of information about the major areas that constitute vocational rehabilitation.
Periodically, there will be topics that are directed either to specific themes such as long-term care or different disability groups such as those with psychiatric impairment. Often a guest editor who is an expert in the given area will provide leadership on a specific topic issue. However, all articles received directly or submitted for a special issue are welcome for peer review. The emphasis will be on publishing rehabilitation articles that have immediate application for helping rehabilitation counselors, psychologists and other professionals in providing direct services to people with disabilities.
Original research articles, review articles, program descriptions, and case studies will be considered for publication. Ideas for special topical issues are welcomed as well.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Employment has been recognized as an important goal for improving the quality of life of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Governments at both the federal and state level have invested billions of dollars to encourage better outcomes for adults with ID as they transition out of high school and into the labor force. OBJECTIVE: Given these important efforts, this study documented the employment situation of working-aged adults with intellectual disabilities across the country. METHODS: Respondents included a nationally representative random sample of 1,017 parents/guardians of adult children (21 years of age or older) with an intellectual disability surveyed by…Gallup. These parents/guardians were selected from approximately 341,000 households screened by Gallup. This methodology allowed for the inclusion of a sample of adults with ID who had never been in the labor force or even sought employment. RESULTS: The results indicate a troublingly low employment rate for adults with ID and a puzzlingly low number who are even in the labor force. CONCLUSIONS: The employment outlook for adults with ID will continue to be bleak until new ways are found to meaningfully incorporate this population into the labor force.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Although competitive employment (i.e., employment in community settings among peers without disabilities for minimum wage or higher) is associated with numerous benefits for individuals with disabilities (Johannesen, McGrew, Griss, & Born, 2007), people with disabilities are underrepresented in the competitive workforce (National Disability Rights Network, 2011). OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the longer-term effectiveness of the Family Employment Awareness Training (FEAT) on the expectations and knowledge of participants who attended the program in 2010–2011. The study also sought to explore the perceptions of families who attended the program. METHODS: We distributed a FEAT Follow-up Survey to 220 participants…to evaluate the program's longer-term influence on participants' expectations and knowledge and conducted 13 semi-structured interviews using a FEAT Interview Protocol to explore families' perceptions. RESULTS: Study findings indicated that participants who attended FEAT rated their expectations as average and rated their knowledge above average one to two years after attending FEAT. An analysis of interview data indicated that families described several aspects of FEAT they liked, aspects they disliked, and suggested improvements for the program. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study indicate that FEAT is a promising approach to improving competitive employment outcomes for individuals with disabilities.
Abstract: Using a nationally representative sample of Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) cases from 2005 – 2010 in the U.S., this study investigates individual and service-specific factors contributing to observed disparities in wages between Caucasian and African American VR clients at the time of separation from the VR system. The structure of the VR case management system allows one to observe only wages of rehabilitated clients; a group comprises about half of all the individuals receiving VR services. The study shows that the censoring nature of wages leads to overestimation of the impact of unexplained factors including employer discrimination on the wage differential…between the two groups of VR clientele. Specifically, after addressing the censoring issue using a Heckman selection framework, the unexplained part of the wage differential drops from 18 to 0 percent. The existing disparities in wages between two racial groups are explained mainly by differences in observed individual characteristics including education, disability, services and geographic location.
Keywords: Vocational rehabilitation, wage differential, successful rehabilitation, exiting with an employment outcome, sample selection, employer discrimination
Abstract: Several systemic barriers exist to the successful recruitment and retention of students for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education programs and careers when students are both members of an underrepresented minority group and an individual with a disability. The authors have designed intervention programs in higher education settings and in this article they identify and discuss well-entrenched impediment that are programmatic, economic, psychological, architectural, and attitudinal in nature. Unless and until these obstacles are addressed (particularly in early adolescence), marginal gains in recruitment and retention is the most that may be expected for STEM education among underrepresented minority students…with disabilities.
Keywords: STEM, Disability, career development, minority
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Apprenticeships and traineeships are beneficial vocational pathways for people with disabilities as they include work-based training and provide nationally recognised formal qualifications. While vocational education and training (VET), particularly apprenticeships and traineeships, has been found to benefit people with disabilities, graduate outcomes are not well documented over time. OBJECTIVE: Identify economic and related outcomes among a cohort of apprenticeship and traineeship graduates with and without disability in Australia from a prospective longitudinal study. METHODS: A total of 489 participants completed the first of three annual surveys. A disability group (DG) consisted of 404 graduates and 85 graduates constituted a…comparison group (CG). RESULTS: Positive employment and economic outcomes were reported. DG apprenticeship graduates and DG traineeship graduates who obtained full-time employment following graduation had outcomes comparable with CG participants. The findings identified many other similarities in outcomes between the DG and CG. CONCLUSIONS: There are strong graduate employment and related outcomes for apprentices and trainees with disabilities. Findings from the second and third waves will shed further light on the sustainability of outcomes over time.
Keywords: Apprenticeship and traineeship graduate, Australia, economic outcomes, prospective longitudinal study
Abstract: The Utah State Office of Rehabilitation's Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) Program provides services to individuals with disabilities to assist them in preparing for and obtaining employment. One service available to Social Security Administration (SSA) beneficiaries is a written benefits analysis provided by a benefits counselor or certified work incentive counselor (CWIC) in the Work Incentives Planning and Assistance (WIPA) program. The written benefits analysis provided clients information on Social Security program rules and how employment earnings will impact their Social Security benefits as well as other public benefits they receive. The goal of the written analysis was to provide recipients with…detailed information about the impact of increased earnings so they can make an informed choice about employment. Statistical analysis indicated that Utah Benefits Planning Assistance & Outreach Program (UBPAO) services are associated with improved earnings, employment outcomes and successful case closure status of VR clients. Multivariate analysis indicated a positive relationship between a written analysis and employment. Although, for those employed at least one quarter, a written analysis was not associated with an increase in their UI wages.
Abstract: Post school outcomes for individuals with disabilities have been consistently poor, when compared to individuals without disabilities, in the areas of employment and education. This article takes a look at issues involved in the transition of youth with orthopedic or physical disabilities (OPD) and other health impairments (OHI). It begins with an overview of OPD and OHI students. This is followed by information on how to improve transition from school to work and postsecondary education outcomes through assessment; effective instruction; and individualized supports.
Keywords: post school, orthopedic disabilities, physical disabilities, OPD, health impairments, transition