Journal of Cellular Biotechnology - Volume 6, issue 1
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Journal of Cellular Biotechnology is a peer-reviewed international journal for advancing research activities in the field of cellular biotechnology. It serves as a medium for the publication of full papers, invited reviews, short communications, technical notes and letters to the Editor-in-Chief on all aspects of cellular biotechnology. This comprises molecular biological topics covering biochemical, chemical, pharmacological or bioprocess engineering aspects, as well as the development of novel biomaterials. Therefore, cellular biotechnology differs from biology, biochemistry, and other basic life sciences by its emphasis on using the knowledge of bioscience to solve important practical problems. Papers presenting information of a multidisciplinary nature - not suitable for publication in a journal devoted to a single discipline - are particularly welcome.
Manuscripts submitted for the
Journal of Cellular Biotechnology are expected to cover activities related to molecular diagnostics, the expansion of human primary cells for individualized therapies or drug testing, 2- and 3-dimensional co-culture techniques, cell line validation, tissue engineering, and stem cell biology for the treatment of human pathologies. This includes studies on the design of reactors and research on cellular biology and physiology of mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo, and tissue. Of special interest is the rational manipulation of reactions through metabolic engineering techniques or specific reactor operations that lead to biomaterials with unique properties. Also, biochemical and physiological studies of metabolism and enzymes as relevant for tissue culture cells, investigations at the molecular level including transcription/translation control; design and engineering of products by molecular strategies; engineering of cellular modification and transport systems such as post-translational protein modifications as well as protein and metabolite secretion; molecular strategies of screening for new or modified products (e.g. pharmaceuticals or bioactive compounds). In addition, investigations in preclinical animal experiments are welcome.
The endeavour of the Editor-in-Chief and publisher of the
Journal of Cellular Biotechnology is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to cell-cell or cell-material interactions all over the world. The editorial board members of the
Journal of Cellular Biotechnology are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in cellular biotechnology is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He/she is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Microalgae species for industrialization are largely selected because of their high lipid and biomass productivity. Both marine and freshwater species exhibit variations in biochemical compositions (i.e. lipid, carbohydrate and protein accumulation in biomass) when cultivated under varying environmental conditions. There is very little research available on the physiological responses of N. limnetica SAG 18.99 in terms of growth rates, biomass and lipid productivity when cultivated under variant nitrogen concentrations. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this research was to observe the physiological responses of Nannochloropsis limnetica (N. limnetica SAG 18.99) in terms of growth rates, biomass…and neutral intracellular lipid when cultivated under variant nitrate concentrations. The null hypothesis was there is no significant difference in growth rate, biomass and neutral intracellular lipid productivity of N. limnetica SAG 18.99 cultivated under variant nitrate concentrations. METHODS: N. limnetica SAG 18.99 was cultivated under “normal nitrate” (3.53 M), “nitrate replete” (7.06 M), “moderate nitrate deplete” (1.765 M), and “high nitrate deplete” (0.8825 M) under the same conditions of light, pH, temperature and CO2 concentration over the duration of 14 days. The parameters measured during the cultivation were optical density to measure growth rates, flow-cytometry to measure cell concentrations/density, gravimetrical measurements for bio dry mass/biomass (BDM), ion chromatography measurements for ions/macronutrients, pH as well as sterility tests. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS software package (IBM statistics Version 23) and differences in data were considered significant at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Growth rates were statistically significant (p = 0.001). Therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected. Bio dry mass was not significant (p = 0.939). Therefore, the null hypothesis was accepted. Relative fluorescence data recorded for all of the four flasks was not significant (p = 0.112). Therefore, the null hypothesis was accepted. pH was not statistically significant (p > 0.05), which means it remained constant and, therefore, had no influence on the cultivation process. CONCLUSIONS: Biomass production exponentially increased in each of the four flasks throughout the cultivation. Relative fluorescence data recorded for all of the four flasks was the highest on the first couple of days during the lag phase and decelerated towards the end of the cultivation period. It was discovered that the success of the Nile red method in assessment of lipids is species dependent. Therefore, other gravimetric and chromatography methods (i.e. gas liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, low field nuclear magnetic resonance) must be employed together with or independent of it. Furthermore, the study recommends future researchers to look into the physiological responses of N. limnetica SAG 18.99 when cultivated under other macronutrient concentrations (i.e. phosphate) and variant environmental parameters (i.e. variations in light intensity, CO2 ).
Keywords: Microalgae, growth rate, biomass, neutral intracellular
lipid, Nannochloropsis limnetica (N. limnetica SAG 18.99)
Abstract: Direct interaction of the sigma-1 (σ 1) receptor, an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone located in close vicinity to the mitochondrion, with a variety of proteins involved in essential processes regulating proliferation, survival, and death of cells, indicates a role of this protein in tumor biology. Since tumor therapies address precisely these processes to stop the growth of tumor cells, the σ 1 receptor could be a suitable modulator of the effectiveness of selected therapies. Recent initial studies have shown not only anti-proliferative effects of ligands targeting this protein, but also modulating effects in both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, in this regard…the influence of functional expression of the σ 1receptor has not yet been fully clarified. The purpose of this pilot experiment was to investigate the role of σ 1 receptor on cellular radiosensitivity in an in vitro model. Therefore, clonogenic assays were performed to assess the susceptibility of HEK293 cells, stably transfected with human σ 1 receptor, towards irradiation (X-ray) in comparison to non-transfected cells. Moreover, irradiation combined with pharmacological treatment should prove whether agonistic and antagonistic ligand binding to σ 1 receptor influences the effectiveness of radiation treatment. The data obtained are not fully conclusive by indicating, on the one hand, an involvement of σ 1 receptor in radiation-induced effects along with pharmacological effects independent from the σ 1 receptor level, on the other hand, suggesting limitations of the model used herein. Consequently, subsequent work will focus on the investigation of tumor cells with different receptor densities.
Abstract: Artificial scaffolds play an important role in tissue engineering, which is used to mimic extracellular matrix (ECM) and provide a suitable microenvironment for cell growth. Many natural and synthetic biomaterials have been used to fabricate two dimensional or three dimensional scaffolds. However, missing electrical conductivity of these materials is one of the disadvantages. Recently, conductive polymers (CPs) and conductive nanomaterials (CNMs) have been chosen for doping into scaffolds to improve their conductivity. This review focuses on conductive scaffolds design, fabrication and application in tissue engineering for enhancing cell attachment and proliferation, promoting differentiation and maturation with and without electrical stimulations.
Abstract: The Giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon , is an invasive species in the Gulf of Guinea along the West African coast. The species is not native to the region but has been well established. The first report of its occurrence in Nigeria was about 20 years ago. DNA bar coding is fast emerging as an essential and additional tool for morphology-based species identification. In this study, both morphological and molecular approaches were used in the identification of Penaeus monodon . Samples of the shrimps were collected from Badagry and Lagos Lagoons, South-western Nigeria between May and July, 2015. The genetic…diversity of Penaeid shrimp species in this oldest and largest brackish water lagoons is still unknown. The morphomerics (meristic and morphometric) measurement of the shrimps was performed while the DNA of the organisms was extracted using slightly modified phenol-chloroform method and the Norgen tissue kit. Amplification and sequencing of the samples were carried out and further identification was done by comparing with sequence data in the GenBank. In this study, the generated sequences revealed 99% close match and similarities with Penaeus monodon with the conspecific database sequences (GenBank and BOLD). This serves as a confirmation to the species nomenclature and an addition to knowledge to the Biologists, Taxonomists and Conservationists. Hence, there is need for more research to be carried out in the future to determine whether the populations of the species along these interconnecting lagoons are genetically diverse despite the fact that there is considerable gene flow between them.
Keywords: DNA extraction, GenBank, Giant tiger shrimp, lagoons, total length, sequencing
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Microalgae are very important primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. Their presence directly correlate with instead of to trophic levels and at times toxicity. They are commonly used as bio indicators in determining water quality and anthropogenic stresses caused by pollution. Changes in microalgae blooms’ population, composition and diversity is influenced by trends in environmental factors, physico-chemical water quality parameters and varying physiological advantages amongst microalgae. Namibian freshwater man-made dams are periodically frequented by microalgae blooms that pose devastating effects on water quality, making water treatment processes troublesome and expensive. Currently, there is no published research on identifying and assessing…the seasonal relative genera abundance and diversity (richness and evenness) of microalgae in Namibian freshwater eutrophic systems. The present study provides an insight into the composition and diversity of microalgae in these systems against physico-chemical water quality parameters. This is an inception study that prompts follow-up or future studies in the Namibian freshwater phycology and water quality assessments. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in the seasonal relative abundance and diversity (richness and evenness) of microalgae in three fresh water eutrophic systems (Goreangab, Von Bach and Swakoppoort Dams) sharing the Swakop catchment in central Namibia. METHODS: Sampling was carried out during the cold dry seasons (14 June 2013 and 4 June 2014) and the warm wet seasons (14 November 2013 and 28 February 2014). The microalgae collected were morphologically identified to genus level using taxonomic keys and enumerated in terms of cell numbers by the use of a haemocytometer. Physico-chemical water quality parameters such as turbidity, pH, temperature, and sdissolved oxygen were measured concurrently using a portable Eutech multi probe. The concentrations of macronutrients (i.e. phosphates, nitrates and ammonia) in samples were determined thereafter using ion chromatography to assess the correlation coefficient against the relative genus abundance. RESULTS: Results revealed that seasonal relative abundance was not normally distributed and not statistically significant for all the dams. Microcystis was the most abundant genus in terms of cell numbers for Swakoppoort and Goreangab Dams during both seasons, while Aulacoseira was the most abundant genus in terms of cell numbers in Von Bach Dam. The Shannon-Weiner diversity index showed that Von Bach Dam was the most diverse, followed by Goreangab Dam and Swakoppoort Dam. Species evenness (evenness index) was the highest for Von Bach Dam and species richness (Margaleff’s index) was the highest for Swakoppoort Dam. CONCLUSIONS: There is no difference in seasonal relative abundance and diversity (richness and evenness) of microalgae sampled in the three Namibian freshwater eutrophic systems (Goreangab, Von Bach and Swakoppoort Dams) throughout the duration of this study. Although, Microcystis was the most abundant genus in cell numbers in two of the systems (Swakoppoort and Goreangab Dams) during both the wet and dry seasons, there were no toxicology tests carried out to determine the mycrocystin concentrations that would be used to compare with the 1998 World Health Organization (WHO) Guideline Value of 1μ g L–1 for microcystin-LR in drinking-water. Therefore, it is recommended that a follow up study be conducted to determine the microcystins concentrations along with other cyanotoxins and bioactive compounds during these blooms. Further recommendations include biweekly assessments of microalgae diversity and abundance over a period of one year; analysis of other macro-and micronutrients, trace elements and chlorophyll a ; topographical and mechanical assessments, especially during water transfers which may affect microalgae compositions as well as employing the use of a diversified set of phytoplankton nets with various pore sizes.
Keywords: Swakoppoort Dam, Von Bach Dam, Goreangab Dam, Eutrophication, nutrients
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Recent evidences have provided new aspects to metastasis formation with respect to intercellular communication/interaction. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to present an in vitro co-culture-principle application for intercellular communication between normal human prostate epithelial cells and prostate cancer cell lines. METHODS: Two prostate cancer cell-lines including androgen-independent DU-145 and PC-3 and the PNT1A, normal human prostate epithelial cell-line, were used in co-culture design. Prostate cancer cells and normal prostate epithelial cells were allowed to grow on the same culture medium without direct cell-to-cell contact and to communicate with each other. After a…period of six-days, expression profiles of seven marker genes, including EGFR , SOX2 , CD133 , CD44 , CASPASE 3 , CASPASE 9 , and IL-6 were determined using qPCR analysis. Comparison of experimental co-cultures with control groups was performed based on repetitive measurements. RESULTS: Expression analysis indicated that several of the genes were expressed at different levels in DU145 and PC-3 cells co-cultured with PNTA1. In this context, SOX2 , CASPASE 9 , and IL-6 genes were over-expressed up to 2–16 times in co-culture set up. CONCLUSIONS: This study may provide important clues regarding intercellular communication between normal and cancer cell lines. However, further experiments are needed to confirm the present results and to evaluate novel aspects of cancer development.
Keywords: Intercellular communication, co-culture, metastasis, tumor microenvironment, cancer